Hlangana Nonkulunkulukazi Wenyanga wamaMaya: Ixchel

Kulesi sihloko sikulethela ulwazi oluningi mayelana nonkulunkulukazi wamaMaya ixchel, onkulunkulu besifazane ababaluleke kakhulu esikweni lamaMayan futhi lokho kuyingxenye yesiko endaweni yaseMesoamerican. Unkulunkulukazi wamaMaya u-Ixchel waziwa njengonkosikazi kaNkulunkulu Wokuhlakanipha Itzamna. Ungaphuthelwa isihloko sithakazelisa kakhulu!

IXCHEL

Unkulunkulukazi wamaMaya u-Ixchel

Ezinganekwaneni zamaMayan, unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel waziwa ngokuthi unkulunkulukazi wenyanga, njengoba ngokwesiko lamaMaya ungomunye wonkulunkulu ababaluleke kakhulu ngenxa yamandla inkanyezi ewasebenzisayo phezu kwabantu, phakathi kwezipho ezihlonishwa kakhulu unkulunkulukazi anazo. U-Ixchel nguyena olawula imijikelezo yenyanga kanye neyamanzi, futhi ungunkulunkulukazi wenzalo, wesivuno, ukukhulelwa, ukubeletha, uthando nobulili.

Kuye kuphinde kube nomthwalo wemfanelo wezokwelapha futhi izinyanga ziyamnxusa ukuthi afune impilo ezigulini, ngendlela efanayo engusanta ongumvikeli wemidwebo, izindwangu kanye nabasebenzi kule ndawo.

Njengoba ayengunkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel, wayeshade nonkulunkulu omkhulu u-Itzamná, yingakho ebizwa ngokuthi unkulunkulukazi u-O, futhi lokho kubonakala kuma-codex, emifanekisweni kankulunkulukazi wamaMaya u-Ixchel umelelwe ephelezelwa unogwaja.

Unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel waziwa nangokukhuleka kwakhe okungalungile, njengoba lapho enobuso bakhe obubi noma obuthukuthele, waba unkulunkulukazi obhubhisayo owathumela izikhukhula, iziphonso nezifo emhlabeni.

Ngokwesiko lamaMaya, unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel wayehlonishwa njengonkulunkulukazi wenyanga, njengoba emele umlingisi wesifazane wale nkanyezi, wayexhunyaniswe nomhlaba futhi ufanekisela ukuzala kanye nemijikelezo yenyanga abantu baseMeya bayisebenzisa ngokunenzuzo. Ukuze alawule izikhathi zokuhlwanyela nokuvuna, abanye bahlobanisa unkulunkulukazi wamaMaya u-Ixchel nonkulunkulu wamaMaya uChac, owayenamandla okubusa izinguquko zesimo sezulu namanzi kuye.

IXCHEL

Yingakho minyaka yonke kugujwa umgubho omkhulu egameni leNkosazana Ixchel ngosiko lokudansa ethempelini lakhe njengoba kwakwenziwa emandulo, lo mcimbi uzobe useXcaret park, ePlaya del Carmen eMexico. Izikebhe nazo zisetshenziswa emabhishi ukuze zimdumise njengonkulunkulukazi wenzalo.

Ngaphambi kokuba onkulunkulu bamaMaya

Ngokwesiko lamaMaya kuthiwa lapho onkulunkulu bengabantu nje abafayo, u-Ixchel wayeyinkosazana enhle eyagqama kwabanye abantu ngenxa yobuhle bayo, okwenza abasha ababili bayithanda.

Ngokwenganekwane yaseMaya, ngesikhathi u-Itzamna ebona u-Ixchel okokuqala, wasangana naye ngenxa yokuthi wayethakathwe ubuhle bakhe obukhulu futhi unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel wakhangwa intelezi kankulunkulu u-Itzamna.

Kodwa indaba ithi inkosana yafika ivela ezweni elikude ithunywe ukuyikhokha kakhulu, kodwa yathi iyibona yakhangwa ubuhle bayo obumangalisayo, yingakho laba balingisi ababili baqala ukumqoma ukuze babone naye. yimuphi kulaba ababili abeshada

Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, udadewabo omdala kankulunkulukazi u-Ixchel, ogama lakhe lalingu-Ixtab, wayephethe isinqumo, okwakuwukuthi bobabili abamelene nabo bazolwa kuze kube sekufeni futhi lowo osinda wayezoba umyeni kankulunkulukazi u-Ixchel.

Nakuba udadewabo u-Ixtab wayengenalo ulwazi lokuthi unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel wayesevele wahlanya ngokuthanda izintelezi zikankulunkulu u-Itzamna. Yathi iqala impi yonke into yayivuna unkulunkulu u-Itzamna owayezonqoba impi, kodwa inkosana yasezweni elikude yakwazi ukumehlula ngokuyigwaza inkemba kwazise yayiqhathe ngandlela thize.

IXCHEL

Yingakho unkulunkulu u-Itzamná eshona khona lapho futhi edabukile ngokwenzekile, u-Ixchel wanquma ukubeka umphefumulo wakhe kudadewabo unkulunkulukazi u-Ixtab futhi wazibulala, ngenxa yalesi sizathu udadewabo waziwa ngokuthi unkulunkulukazi wokuzibulala.

Kungakho udadewabo unkulunkulukazi u-Ixtab wayekubona konke okwenzeka ngesikhathi behilizisana futhi esazi nogibe olwabe lubanjwe yinkosana yalapha kude lwamenza isiqalekiso esingaziwa muntu ngaye kwaze kwalibaleka igama lakhe.

Ngemva kokuba onkulunkulu, imiphefumulo yezintombi yaqondisa indlela lapho unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel ahlangana khona nesithandwa sakhe endaweni ephakeme kakhulu esibhakabhakeni, yingakho bobabili baba unkulunkulu wenyanga okungu-Ixchel no-Itzamna owaba unkulunkulu welanga.

Nakuba le nganekwane yomsuka wamaMaya izophetha lapho unkulunkulu u-Itzamná kumlingisi wothando ezonikeza unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel ukukhanya kwenyanga ukuze akwazi ukukhanyisa ebusuku futhi njengesipho amnikeze iqembu lezintombi ukuze amgcine. inkampani ngobusuku izinkanyezi.

Unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel kanye Nezimpawu zakhe

Unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel owaziwa nangokuthi unkulunkulukazi wothando, njengoba enkolweni yamaMaya kukhona inqwaba yonkulunkulu, okungenye yamasiko abanzi futhi abalulekile akhiwa esifundeni saseMesoamerican. Bonke onkulunkulu besiko lamaMaya babehlobene nesayensi yezinkanyezi, indawo yonke, imvelo kanye nokuhamba kwesikhathi.

Ngalesi sizathu, unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel waziwa ngokuthi inkosikazi yenyanga, elawula imijikelezo ehlukene isathelayithi yemvelo yoMhlaba enayo, waziwa nangokuthi unkulunkulukazi wocansi nokukhulelwa kanye nenzalo. abesifazane bamphathisa kuye ukuze ukubeletha kwabo kuphephile futhi kuvikele izingane ezisanda kuzalwa.

Kunencwadi engcwele eyaziwa ngokuthi uChilam Balam, lapho kuxoxwa khona ngezinganekwane zempucuko yamaMaya, njengoba cishe zonke izincwadi zempucuko yamaMaya zashiswa abaseSpain lapho befika eMelika, kule ncwadi kunegama likankulunkulukazi u-Ixchel. njengencazelo "The Rainbow Woman" kuyilapho kweminye imibhalo yesandla unkulunkulukazi ehlobene nokudweba, ubuciko, izindwangu, imithi kanye nezinyanga.

Phakathi kwezithombe ezimele kakhulu zikankulunkulukazi u-Ixchel singamthola izingubo zakhe zokweluka ezinendwangu yokuluka okhalo lwakhe futhi iyithuluzi eliwusizo unkulunkulukazi alinikeza abantu futhi lokhu kwabangela ukuba bamhlobanise nezicabucabu.

Ngale ndlela, emasikweni aseMeya naseMesoamerican, kuthiwa intambo yayo yayiyindwangu yokuphila, intambo ye-umbilical eyobe ifanekisela i-placenta.

Kwezinye izithombe kanye nezibalo zomhume ezikhona mayelana nonkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel, kunezinguqulo ezimbili zobuso bakhe kweyokuqala eyaziwa ngokuthi owesifazane omuhle ohambisana nonogwaja. Le ngxenye yokuqala kankulunkulukazi u-Ixchel ivela esikhathini sakudala esiphakathi kuka-250 no-950 AD, esizomela inyanga.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi lukankulunkulukazi u-Ixchel, ufana nesalukazi esithela amanzi etsheni futhi lokhu kunobudlelwane obuningi, okokuqala ukuthi kuhlobene nokufa ngoba kuvela inyoka eboshwe ekhanda noma emathanjeni. esiketini sakhe.

Kodwa ngesikhathi esifanayo lokhu kuhlobene neziphepho ezinamandla kanye nencithakalo eshiya uMhlaba ungenalutho futhi ugcwele izidumbu. Ngale ndlela, unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel waziwa onobuntu obumnyama futhi onobudlova kakhulu ongajezisa isintu ngokukhiqiza izikhukhula neziphepho ezinamandla ezizodala umonakalo omkhulu.

Uma itholakala kulolu hlangothi, imelelwa ngomfanekiso wowesifazane ogqoke inyoka ezisongile entanyeni yakhe futhi ekhanda egqoke umhlobiso wamathambo abantu futhi izinyawo zakhe zinezimo ezinjengozipho ezibukeka zisongela, ezifanayo kakhulu. eziziphophoni zokhozi..

Ngendlela efanayo, izakhamuzi zesiko lamaMaya zihlanganisa unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel nezinkomba ezine zendawo yonke, nazo zimelelwa imibala emnyama, ebomvu, ephuzi nemhlophe.

unkulunkulukazi wenyanga

Njengabantu abaningi basendulo, amaMeya adala isiko elikhulu lonkulunkulu nonkulunkulukazi abamele izici ezihlukahlukene zemvelo. Kuleli qembu lonkulunkulu, unkulunkulu u-Ixchel ugqama njengonkulunkulukazi omhlophe wenyanga.

Unkulunkulukazi wamaMaya u-Ixchel wayenamandla okunikeza ukuphila kuzo zonke izidalwa, njengoba enomthwalo wemfanelo wokubusa ukuzalwa kwezingane kanye nokwelapha abantu abathintwe yimpilo.

Njengoba inamandla okubusa inyanga nomjikelezo wayo uyashintsha, ngakolunye uhlangothi inamandla okujezisa isintu uma singanakwa noma singanakwa ngokuthumela izivunguvungu ezinkulu ezikhukhula amadolobha, ngoba zingamela izimpawu zokufa.

Unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel usendaweni ekhetheke kakhulu enkonzweni yezithixo zaseMayan, engumfazi kankulunkulu ongusomandla u-Itzamna owayengumdali wezwe futhi ohlotshaniswa nenkanyezi ilanga. Laba onkulunkulu beshadile babengabazali bezingane eziyishumi nantathu.

Izingane ezivelele kakhulu zikankulunkulukazi u-Ixchel Yum Kax, ongunkulunkulu wezitshalo zasendle nezilwane ezibaluleke kakhulu kubazingeli, kanye nabalimi abafuna izitshalo zabo zikhululeke ezilwaneni ezidla ezinye.

Enye yamadodana abalulekile esikweni lamaMaya likankulunkulukazi u-Ixchel ngu-Ek hawu, owayebizwa ngokuthi unkulunkulu we-cocoa nezimpi, kanye nokuba ngumvikeli wabo bonke abathengisi baseMayan. Abanye abantwana bakankulunkulukazi u-Ixheli babephakathi kwemihlatshelo eyenziwayo, kuyilapho amadodakazi kankulunkulukazi ayengonkulunkulukazi bamanzi, bepharadesi nabasebusuku.

Amathempeli Lapho Kuhlonishwa Unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel

Njengoba engomunye wonkulunkulukazi ababaluleke kakhulu besiko lamaMaya, ngaphezu kweqiniso lokuthi amaMayans aveza inani elikhulu lamakhono angaphezu kwawemvelo kulo nkulunkulukazi, kwakhiwa amathempeli amaningana kuyo yonke indawo yamaMaya egameni likankulunkulukazi u-Ixchel ukuze akhokhe. intela kuyo neminikelo.

Ithempeli elimele kakhulu elakhiwa egameni lakhe yilelo eliseSiqhingini saseCuzamil, okwamanje elaziwa ngokuthi yiXcaret. Ngokwezinganekwane nezinsumansumane, amakholwa ayevakashela ithempeli ukuze akwazi ukubonisana nethempeli likankulunkulukazi u-Ixchel.

Ababehambele lezi zingxoxo kakhulu ngabesifazane abafuna ukukhulelwa noma asebekhulile ngenhloso yokucela unkulunkulukazi nokucela umusa wakhe ukuze bakhulelwe.

“Enye yezinkolelo ezibaluleke kakhulu zabantu baseMaya yayiwukuthi abantu ababeya emathempelini abo futhi balethe iminikelo kuwo babeyojabulela isivikelo sabo nokubonga."

Enye indawo ebalulekile lapho kwakuhlonishwa khona unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel yaziwa ngokuthi i-Isla de las Mujeres, esoLwandle LwaseCaribbean, eduze kakhulu neNhlonhlo YaseYucatan. Nakuba kubhaliwe emlandweni ukuthi lesi siqhingi satholwa abaseSpain lapho uhambo lukaFrancisco Hernández de Córdoba lwenziwa ngonyaka ka-1517.

Nakuba lesi siqhingi sase sigcwele abantu futhi bezinikele ekukhulekeleni unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel, kwakunikelwa iminikelo yabesifazane lapho. Ngokuvumelana nalokho okushiwo emlandweni, amakholwa ayeya endlini engcwele ayebeka izipho zawo emabhishi, ngakho lapho amaSpanishi efika kuleso siqhingi athola inani elikhulu leminikelo eyenziwa kunkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel.

Ngale ndlela banquma ukuqamba isiqhingi ngokuthi i-Ixchel. Njengamanje kunamathempeli amaningi nezindawo ezingcwele ezinikezelwe kunkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel, ikakhulukazi eNhlonhlweni yaseYucatan nasesiqhingini saseCozumel, nakuba kulesi siqhingi kunomfanekiso kankulunkulukazi u-Ixchel, amanye amakholwa amdidanisa neNcasakazi uMariya ukuthi ungubani inkolo yobuKristu nakuleso siqhingi kokubili kuyahlonishwa futhi abathembekile bahamba minyaka yonke ukuletha iminikelo yomusa owamukelwe.

Inganekwane Yokuba Unkulunkulukazi Wenzalo

KumaMayans, kwakukholelwa ukuthi unkulunkulukazi u-Ixchel wayengunkulunkulukazi wenyanga, futhi wachitha isikhathi sakhe ezulazula esibhakabhakeni futhi lapho engekho emkhathizwe, walala e-cenotes kanye nenye yezinganekwane ezimele kakhulu Unkulunkulukazi wamaMaya u-Ixchel uyena owayehlobene nenzalo.

Kutshelwa kule nganekwane ukuthi ekuqaleni komlilo omusha, abesifazane banikezwa isipho sokuzala sibonga unkulunkulu u-Ixchel, yingakho le nganekwane iphathi yabanjwa ngabesifazane njengesiko lamaMaya elibanikeza amasiko nezipho .

Uma uthole le ndatshana mayelana nonkulunkulukazi wamaMaya u-Ixchel ibalulekile, ngikumema ukuthi uvakashele izixhumanisi ezilandelayo:


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