Yayinjani inhlangano yezenhlalakahle yamaMuisca?

Ukusuka eColombia sizokhuluma ngaleli qembu lendabuko, namuhla sizokukhombisa ngalesi sihloko esithokozisayo, konke mayelana ne Inhlangano Yezenhlalakahle yeMuiscas, Umndeni noma umndeni onwetshiwe, ohlobene ngegazi. Ungaphuthelwa!

INHLANGANO YOMPHAKATHI YE-MUISCA

Yayinjani iNhlangano Yezenhlalakahle YakwaMuiscas?

Inhlangano yezenhlalakahle yamaMuiscas yayisekelwe emndenini, owawuhlanganisa iqembu labantu elihlanganiswe igazi. Lezi zizwe zazinenkosi noma induna, okungaba umpristi (ophinde abizwe ngokuthi isheikh). Izizwe zazivame ukuba yingxenye yesizwe, okungukuthi, izizwana eziningana zahlanganiswa futhi zakha iqembu elilodwa lezenhlalakahle. Inhlangano yezenhlalakahle yeMuiscas yayinezigaba ezihlukene zezenhlalo. Amakhosi ezizwe, izinduna zemindeni noma abapristi babenezikhundla eziphezulu kakhulu emphakathini. Balandelwa amaqhawe (abizwa ngokuthi ama-guechas).

Isigaba senhlalakahle esilandelayo sakhiwa izingcweti, abakhandi begolide, ababumbi, izisebenzi zasezimayini zikasawoti nezimaradi, abathengisi, nezisebenzi zasemapulazini. Ekugcineni, esigabeni esiphansi, kwakuyizigqila. Babeyizitha zabomdabu ababehluliwe base bethunjwa futhi baphoqwa ukuba bakhonze ezizweni.

Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi kwakukhona ama-cacique amaningi ngaphakathi kwenhlangano yezenhlalakahle ye-Muiscas. Labo ababenamandla amakhulu babebizwa ngoZipas noZaques kanti labo ababenezikhundla eziphansi babebizwa ngama-Uzaques.

Ukwakheka Komphakathi kwe-Muiscas

Leli qembu lomdabu lalinenhlangano yezenhlalo eyi-pyramidal, eyakhiwe amakhosi, abapristi, amaqhawe, izisebenzi zezolimo, izingcweti nabathengisi, kanye nesigaba esiphansi kunazo zonke: izigqila.

Izizinda

AbakwaMuiscas bazihlela baba yizinduna. Kwakuyizinhlaka zezombangazwe ezaziholwa ukhokho, owayeyinhloko yenhlangano. Izigxobo beziphelezelwa oSheikh, ithimba kanye nabakhala basedolobheni. AmaMuiscas ayebheka amakhosi anamandla kakhulu namasheikh njengenzalo eqondile yonkulunkulu. Izinduna namaSheikh banikwa amandla okuphakela umphakathi ukudla. Ukuze benze lokhu, benza imicikilisho yokuhlonipha imvelo, ukubavikela nokwenza noma yini engaphezu kweyemvelo.

Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, ama-caciques (ama-zipas noma ama-zaques) ayengenakubhekwa emehlweni abo futhi konke ababekukhiqiza kwakubhekwa njengokungcwele. Sikhuluma ngama- caciques anamandla amakhulu, ngoba kwakukhona amanye "ama-cacique" ayebusa endaweni (imvamisa kwakungama-guecha ayeqanjwa ngokuthi ama-cacique ngezenzo zawo zokulwa). Lawa ma cacique ayebizwa ngokuthi uzaque.

Ngakho-ke, ukuze idolobha ligcinwe ngaphansi kokubusa kombusi ophakeme, kwakudingeka kusetshenziswe abamemezeli basemadolobheni. Abamemezeli basedolobheni babephethe ukukhuluma nezigxobo zendawo, bebakhumbuza ukuthi labo ababenamandla amakhulu yibo lezi nzalo yezithixo.

indlunkulu engcwele

Kwakukhona indlunkulu engcwele eyayinamandla enkolo, yilezi:

-I-Sacred of Tundama, etholakala endaweni manje eyaziwa ngokuthi i-Duitama, i-Paipa, i-Cerinza, i-Ocavita, i-Onzaga ne-Soatá.

-I-Sacred of Iraca, etholakala endaweni manje eyaziwa ngokuthi i-Busbanzá, i-Sogamoso, i-Pisba ne-Toca.

Ubukhosi baseGuatavita

I-Guatavita cacicazgo yasungulwa ngekhulu le-XNUMX futhi yayihlala engxenyeni emaphakathi yesifunda esithathwe ama-Muiscas.

Ubukhosi baseHunza

Ubukhosi baseHunza bathuthuka endaweni manje eyaziwa ngokuthi iTunja, umasipala osemnyangweni waseBoyaca. Amakhosi amaHunza abaluleke kakhulu kwaba: uHanzahúa, uMichuá noQuemuenchatocha. UQuemuenchatocha wayengumholi owayesesihlalweni sobukhosi lapho kufika abaseSpain, waphikelela ekufihleni umcebo wakhe ukuze awuvikele kumaSpanishi.

Ubukhosi baseBacatá

Lobu bukhosi bakhula endaweni yaseZipha. AmaZipa ayinhloko kwakuyilawa: Meicuchuca (ocatshangelwa izazi-mlando ezithile njengeZipa yokuqala yeZipazgo yaseBacatá), Saguamanchica, Nemequene, Tisquesusa kanye noSagipa.Owokugcina kwakungumfowabo kaTisquesusa futhi wathatha isihlalo sobukhosi ngemva kokubulawa kukaTiquesusa ngamaSpanishi.

OSheikh noma abapristi baseMuisca

Abapristi baseMuisca babebizwa ngokuthi ama-sheikh. Laba babenemfundo yeminyaka eyishumi nambili eyayiqondiswa ngabadala. INHLANGANO YOMPHAKATHI YE-MUISCA

OSheikh babegcina yonke imikhosi yenkolo futhi beyingxenye yezigaba zomphakathi ezifanele kakhulu, njengoba babezibheka njengenzalo yonkulunkulu noma izithixo zezinkanyezi. Ngakho-ke, yonke imisebenzi yenkolo yathathwa ngokungathi sína.

Abapristi, njengezikhulu zezizwe, yibona ababegcina ingxenye yentela eqoqwe kanye nensalela yesivuno.

Amaqhawe eMuisca

Ama-Muisca fighters ayaziwa ngokuthi ama-guecha. Laba yibo ababephethe ukuvikela indawo yamaMuiscas ezizweni eziyizitha.

AbakwaMuiscas bazihlela ngokwepolitiki nangokokuphatha besebenzisa i-Muisca Confederation, eyayakhiwe izindawo ezine: iZipazgo de Bacatá, Zacazgo de Hunza, Iraca kanye neTundama.

Ukuze ube yingxenye yamaguecha kwakungadingeki ukuba ube ngowezicukuthwane, okwakudingeka kuphela kwakuwukubonisa amandla nesibindi ababenaso. Ama- gecha ayetuswa ngezenzo zawo ezimpini nezinye izizwe futhi ahlonishwa kakhulu.

INHLANGANO YOMPHAKATHI YE-MUISCA

Muisca izingcweti nabasebenzi

Leli qembu laliphethe ukukhiqiza yonke imisebenzi yezandla, ubucwebe kanye nemihlobiso esetshenziswa abakwaMuiscas. Babenomthwalo wemfanelo wokusebenza ezimayini nokusebenza emasimini (ukuvuna konke ukudla).

Leli qembu yilona elenze umsebenzi onzima, yingakho kuthiwa ngaphandle kwabo izicukuthwane, abefundisi namaqhawe bebengeke baphile.

Izigqila

AmaMuiscas ayelokhu elwa nezinye izizwe. Ngamunye wabo, banqoba izitha zabo futhi bathatha abasindile njengezigqila.

Izigqila zaziphethe imisebenzi ethile eyayiphathiswe amaMuiscas futhi kwakufanele ziphile ngokuvumelana neziyalezo zazo.

AbakwaMuisca bafika kanjani esihlalweni sobukhosi?

I-Muiscas yayinemithetho yokulandelana kukamatiti. Ngenxa yalesi simiso, ifa lanikezwa ngomama.

Ngakho-ke, amadodana e-zaque noma i-zipa ayengewona ngaso sonke isikhathi emgqeni wokulandelana. Uma kwakukhona indoda enguyise ozala umama, kwakuyoba nguye onelungelo lokuhlala esihlalweni sobukhosi.

Amasiko nezindlela zokuphila

Ezolimo nokudla: AbakwaMuiscas basungule iziza zezolimo ezihlakazekile ezindaweni ezihlukahlukene zezulu. Endaweni ngayinye babenendawo yokuhlala yesikhashana, okwakubavumela ukuba bajabulele imikhiqizo yezolimo ezindaweni ezibandayo nezipholile ngezikhathi ezimisiwe.

Lolu hlelo lwezolimo, olubizwa ngokuthi "imodeli encane", lwalulawulwa ngokuqondile noma ngobudlelwane bokuhlonipha nokuxoxisana namanye amaqembu ezizwe zomdabu lapho amaMuiscas ayengaphansi kwawo.

Le modeli ingaba impendulo eguquguqukayo ezingqinambeni zemvelo, njengoba izitshalo eziningi zingonyaka. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ingozi eqhubekayo yesichotho nesithwathwa, nakuba ingasho ukulahlekelwa okuphelele kwezilimo, ingabangela ukushoda.

Ingxenye yenkinga yaxazululwa ngezinhlobo eziningi zamazambane ezazikhona, futhi eziningi zalezi zinhlobonhlobo zazikwazi ukumelana nesithwathwa phakathi nezinyanga ezinhlanu zitshaliwe.

Kodwa futhi, ngokuba nemikhiqizo yamazinga ahlukene okushisa, babekwazi ukufinyelela ngokugcwele ubhatata, umdumbula, ubhontshisi, upelepele, i-coca, ukotini, ithanga, i-arracacha, i-fique, i-quinoa kanye ne-beech ebomvu, nakuba okuyisisekelo sokudla kwabo ummbila.

Njengoba abakwaMuiscas babengayazi insimbi, babesebenza umhlaba ngamatshe noma ngamapulangwe ngenkathi yemvula, lapho inhlabathi isithambile, ngakho babebheka inkathi eyomile njengenhlekelele enkulu.

Amazambane, ummbila kanye nequinoa kwakuyimikhiqizo eyinhloko esetshenziswayo, enongwe ngosawoti, upelepele kanye nezinhlobonhlobo zamakhambi anamakha. Kabili ngonyaka, bavuna amazambane nommbila kanye ezindaweni ezibandayo, lapho kwakuhlala iningi labantu.

Akwaziwa ukuthi babesebenzisa i-sweet stalk stalk, njengoba kwenza abomdabu baseMexico, noma uju nje, olwalugcwele emithambekeni yezintaba. Isiphuzo esibalulekile se-Muiscas kwakuyichicha, isiphuzo esidakayo esivutshelwe ngommbila.

Ayezijwayeza ukuzingela nokudoba, laba bamuva emfuleni nasemachibini asemathafeni anamanetha amancane nezihlenga zomhlanga abaqhubeka bewenza kwaze kwaba sekhulwini le-XNUMX.

Baphinde badle amaprotheni amaningi emifino njengamantongomane, ubhontshisi kanye ne-coca, kanye namaprotheni ezilwane afana ne-curri, inyamazane, unogwaja, izinhlanzi, izintuthwane, izibungu, izinyoni nezilwane zasehlathini. Iziphathimandla zeMuisca zaziphethe ukwabiwa kabusha kokudla ngezikhathi zokushoda.

Umlobi wemilando waseSpain uGonzalo Fernández de Oviedo uthe phakathi neminyaka emibili yokunqoba, akukho nosuku okwalahleka zonke izinto ezazidingeka ukuze ungene emigedeni yobuKristu. Ulandisa ukuthi kwakukhona izinsuku zezinyamazane eziyikhulu, enye yekhulu namashumi amahlanu futhi ngosuku lokugcina izinyamazane ezingamashumi amathathu, onogwaja kanye nenhlangano yezenhlalo enelukuluku ngisho nosuku lwezinyamazane eziyinkulungwane.

Nazi ezinye izixhumanisi onentshisekelo kuzo:

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
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