I-Rocky Mountains: Izimpawu, Ukwakheka nokunye

I-Las Izintaba Ezinamadwala, ziyi-System of Cordilleras, ehlanganisa indawo esentshonalanga yeNyakatho Melika. Ukusuka e-Cota Máxima, amamitha angu-4.401 ngaphezu kwezinga lolwandle, e-Elbert Peak eSifundazweni SaseColorado. Yamemezela amaPaki ayo yi-UNESCO, ngo-1984, Indawo Yamagugu Omhlaba. Thola konke mayelana nabo lapha.

Izintaba Ezinamadwala

Izintaba Ezinamadwala

I-Las Izintaba Ezinamadwala, futhi ehlonzwe ngamagama "Ezintaba ZaseRocky" noma "Izintaba Zamadwala". Ziyisimiso sokuphakama, okuhlanganiswe, okuhlanganisiwe noma okuxhunywe ndawonye, ​​okungukuthi, ukhahlamba lwezintaba. Ezitholakala engxenyeni esentshonalanga yeNyakatho Melika, nazo ezikhonjwe njengeNyakatho Melika noma iNyakatho Melika.

Okuphinde kuchaze imashi ehambisana neWest Coast. Kusukela esiFundazweni saseBritish Columbia, esiphinde sikhonjwe njengeBritish Columbia noma nje BC esitholakala eNyakatho-ntshonalanga. Ukuvakashela noma ukweqa umkhawulo weSifundazwe Sase-Alberta naseBritish Columbia, uze ufinyelele ngisho naseNingizimu-ntshonalanga ye-United States of America, eSifundazweni sayo saseNew Mexico.

Ngamanye amazwi, lesi simiso sezindawo eziphakeme ezihambisanayo sichaza imashi efanayo esuka oGwini oluseNtshonalanga eNyakatho Melika, lusuka e-Alaska. Itholakala eNyakatho-ntshonalanga, inqamula iCanada futhi ifike umvuthwandaba wayo eNingizimu-ntshonalanga ye-United States of America. Isiqongo salo esiphakeme kunazo zonke noma izinga eliphezulu kakhulu litholakala eNtabeni i-Elbert, e-Colorado, endaweni ephakeme ngamamitha angu-4.401 ngaphezu kwezinga lolwandle (masl).

Ngo-1915, e-United States of America, kwasungulwa indawo eyaziwa ngokuthi i-Rocky Mountain National Park. Lapho eminyakeni engama-69 kamuva, ikakhulukazi ngo-1984, i-Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks imenyezelwa njengeNdawo Yamagugu Omhlaba yi-UNESCO.

Kubalulekile ukusho ukuthi ngenxa yezindawo zayo ezinhle kakhulu, kanye nokungenakuqhathaniswa, okujabulisayo kanye nokusendle. Izimbali nezilwane. Izikhala zakhona kube yizindawo ezingcono kakhulu noma izilungiselelo zokuqoshwa, ukuze kuphile amafilimu ahlukahlukene asentshonalanga. Futhi eyakha kuwo wonke umumo wayo iNorthwest - Southeast, ehamba phambili yezindawo eziheha izivakashi, kokubili ezivakashini zamaholide kanye nakubathandi bezemidlalo.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6WgNxBVXFQ

Umsuka Wezintaba ZaseRocky

Imvelaphi yezintaba ze-Rocky ivezwa noma ibonakaliswe kusukela ekuqaleni kwethonya noma umphumela wokuhamba kwamapuleti e-tectonic. Ukuzibhekisa ku-Pacific Ocean plate ngokuphambene nezwekazi laseNyakatho Melika.

Lapho kufanele kube khona, uhlelo lwe-Rocky Mountain lwaqala ukudalwa kwalo kancane kancane, kuyilapho uqweqwe lwezwekazi lomhlaba lwaluncipha. Ngenxa yomthelela, umkhiqizo noma umphumela wengcindezi, eyenziwa ngenani lamasentimitha angu-2,5 ngonyaka.

Ngakho-ke, kuyadingeka futhi ukuthi ukukhuphuka kwabo kuqhubeke, ngoba ngokwe-geologically bayaqhubeka nokwenza kanjalo, becabangela ukuthi ngenjongo yokubhalisa nokufunda basungulwa bebancane.

Igama lakho livelaphi?

Igama lezintaba ze-Rocky livela egameni noma inkulumo yezwi lamaNdiya aseMelika. Kwathi ngo-1752, uJacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre, odabuka e-Europe, wammisa ukuthi ambize ngo-“Montagnes de Roche”.

Zombili izintaba ze-Rocky, njengazo zonke izinto eziseduze nazo, zahlanganiswa njengendawo yokuhlala yabantu bomdabu abahlukahlukene. Lokho kufinyelela esikhathini esikude kakhulu, kwakuyindawo yokuthuthukiswa lapho kuzingelwa khona izilwane ezinjengezinyathi ngisho nezimpungushe, osekunesikhathi eside zanyamalala.

AmaNdiya aseMelika e-Rocky Mountains

Ngaso sonke isikhathi ukhona Izintaba Ezinamadwala zazibhekwa njengendawo engcwele, isibonelo senkolelo eyahlanganiswa abantu abaningi njengezizwe zamaqhawe ezinamandla zama-Apache noma amaSioux.

Qala Ukuhlola kwakho

Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi phakathi naso sonke isikhathi sokubusa kwamakoloni okwenziwa abaseSpain, izintaba zaseRocky zahlala zingaziwa ngokuphelele. Nokho, kulokho okuhlanganisa ikhulu le-1793, ukuba khona kwalo kuqala ukucatshangelwa futhi kuzalwa isifiso sokuhlola. Njengoba enalokho umuntu oqala ukungena futhi alihlole, nguSir Alexander Mackenzie, odabuka eScotland, ngonyaka ka-XNUMX.

Kudlula iminyaka eminingana futhi ukuhlola kuvela esandleni sikaLewis noClark, ababulawa phakathi kwalokho okwakha iminyaka engu-1804 - 1806, lapho futhi baqoqa khona amasampula ezifundo ezihlukahlukene.

Umlando namasiko

Amaqembu okuqala azulazulayo, afika ahlala endaweni Izintaba EzinamadwalaBasebenzisa imifula yabo ukwenza ukuhweba kwabo, kanye nokusuka kolunye uhlangothi kuya kolunye. Ekupheleni kweminyaka yawo-1800, lapho abahloli bamazwe base-Europe base besebenza ngokugcwele, kanye nokutholwa kwezinsimbi eziningi eziyigugu, ukuhlaliswa kwezifiki kwanda kakhulu.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukusungulwa kwamathrekhi amasha kuyaqala, njengoba kwenzeka kumzila wesitimela onqamula ezwenikazi. Lokho njengoba kwaziwa, kwakuyingxenye yentuthuko phakathi nekhulu leminyaka esesidlulile kakade. Lapho ngaphandle kokuba nokuxhumana okukhulu nokuxhumana, kancane kancane kwakha intuthuko yesimanje yanamuhla.

I-Rocky Mountain Formation

Inqubo yokwakhiwa kwezintaba ze-Rocky yenziwa nge- "Cenozoic orogenesis". Ngokuvumelana nalokho zakhiwe "i-core of crystalline rocks". Lapho, lo mgogodla umbozwe yidwala le-sedimentary. Ekugcineni sithola ukuthi ukwakheka kwayo kungumkhiqizo:

  • Ukuguguleka komkhathi.
  • izingozi zezintaba-mlilo.
  • Imikhondo ye-Quaternary Glaciation.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, i-Carboniferous engasekho, ehambisana nendawo yesihlanu ku-Paleozoic Era, kwakuyinkathi yokusebenza okukhulu kwe-tectonic. Lapho amapuleti e-Laurentia kanye ne-Gondwana aqala khona, akhiqiza inqubo yokuziphendukela kwemvelo ye-Appalachian orogeny, okusho ukuthi "ukudala izintaba".

Kamuva, kuyo yonke i-Paleocene kanye ne-Eocene yakuqala, ukuslayidela konqenqema lwe-Earth crustal plate kwenzeka ekujuleni okungashoni. Ngaphansi kwalokho okukhona namuhla eNtshonalanga Melika. Ukuqala ukuphakama kwe-crust, okungukuthi, i- Izintaba Ezinamadwala.

Kuyo yonke iminyaka engaphezu kwezigidi ezingu-60, ngesikhathi sokuziphendukela kwemvelo nokubunjwa, baye bahlaselwa yisimo sezulu, i-geology, phakathi kokunye, ngaphandle kokumisa ukukhula kwabo.

Izici ze-Rocky Mountain

I-Las Izintaba Ezinamadwala Bagqama ngokwethula izici ezilandelayo, okuyizi:

  • Atholakala entshonalanga yeNyakatho Melika.
  • Ubude bayo buzungeza cishe amakhilomitha angu-4.800, kuyilapho ububanzi bayo buhluka phakathi kwebanga lamakhilomitha angu-110 kuya kwangu-480.
  • Isiqongo esiphakeme kunazo zonke yiNtaba i-Elbert engamamitha angu-4.401 ngaphezu kwezinga lolwandle.
  • Ingxenye ye- izici zesimo sezulu ye-Rocky Mountains, iyenza ibe yikhaya lemithombo eminingana yemifula evelele kakhulu eNyakatho Melika. Izibonelo zalokhu uMfula i-Columbia kanye ne-Bravo.
  • Imikhawulo yayo itholakala eNyakatho Alberta naseBritish Columbia, eCanada. Kubandakanya iNingizimu ye-New Mexico, Isifunda sase-United States of America. Ngaphesheya kwamaThafa Amakhulu eMpumalanga nezigodi ezihlukahlukene, kanye namathafa aseNtshonalanga.
  • Ihlanganisa i-Continental Divide of America, enesibopho sokuhlukanisa amachibi akhiphela amanzi awo e-Pacific Ocean.
  • Zihlukaniswe izigaba, okuyilezi: Canadian Rocky Mountains in Canada; Izintaba zaseNingizimu Rocky; I-Northern Rocky Mountains kanye ne-Central Rocky Mountains. Laba abathathu bokugcina bangabakwa United States izintaba.
  • Izimila zakhona ziyindlala kakhulu, zishintsha ngokuphelele ngaseNyakatho lapho inehlathi eliminyene le-coniferous.
  • Engxenyeni yawo esenyakatho yilapho kuvezwa khona futhi kuboniswe izigodi ezihlukahlukene ezigqamayo ngenxa yobuncane nokujula kwazo.
  • Kuvame kakhulu ukuthi ukunyakaza okuphindaphindiwe kwe-telluric kuyenzeka endaweni yezintaba njengomphumela wokuqhubekela phambili kokuthi amaPlates of the Pacific Ocean kanye neNorth American Subcontinent enza ngokuphikisana.
  • Izintaba zakhona zakha umgoqo wesimo sezulu ovimba noma ovimba umswakama wemimoya evela eNtshonalanga.

Izinsiza ze-Rocky Mountain

I-Rocky Mountains igqame ngokuhlomula kulezi zinsiza ezilandelayo, okuyizi:

  • Amaminerali Reserves: Imithombo yamaminerali ethandwa kakhulu ngayo igolide, isiliva, i-molybdenum, ithusi, i-zinc, i-sodium carbonate nomthofu, phakathi kokunye. Ukukhumbula ukuthi, ngaphandle kwezinye izindawo noma izindawo zesibili, amalahle ngisho nowoyela atholakele.
  • Izitshalo esigodini: Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi i-high mountain meadow yiyona ehlanganisa yonke indawo, nokho, ezigodini yilapho izitshalo ezihlukahlukene zezolimo zamazambane kanye nezinhlamvu zitholakala khona ikakhulukazi. Ngenkathi engxenyeni esenyakatho kukhona ukufuywa kwezimvu.
  • Ezokuvakasha: Ezokuvakasha zakha ukukhanga okunamandla kwalezi zintaba. Okukhona kuyona imidlalo eyahlukene engenziwa iyingxenye yezinto ezintsha zale ndawo, ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi sasebusika. Okunye okukhangayo okuhle yisipho esitholakala ngokuhlala kwabavakashi. Ngaphandle kokushiya eceleni injabulo enkulu ehlinzekwa ujantshi wesitimela, owela izintaba usuka ngapha nangapha ukuvumela ukuba wazise ukubukeka kwawo okuhle.

 

I-Rocky Mountain Geography

Ngokwendawo, i Izintaba Ezinamadwala ziyisimiso sezintaba zezintaba, kucatshangelwa ukuthi ukunyakaza kwe-telluric, kanye nezenzakalo ze-volcanic, zivame ngokuphelele futhi ziphindaphinda endaweni. Ngasogwini lolwandle, isongwe ngokuphawulekayo, ngenxa yokuthi kulapho kungqubuzana khona phakathi kwamaPlate oLwandlekazi iPacific kanye nalawo aseNyakatho neMelika Yezwekazi. Lapho, lokhu kungenxa yomphumela wangaphambili okhiqizwayo.

Isinqumo i-horst ne-graven enaso, yenza kube nokwenzeka ukuthola izitsha zangaphakathi ezikude noma ezikude. I-Rocky Mountains ohlangothini lwawo olusempumalanga ibonisa amathafa amakhulu amaphakathi. Mayelana neNtshonalanga, yindawo lapho behla khona baze babekwe ezitsheni enazo ngaphakathi. Lapho umphumela wokuguguleka otholwa amadwala uyancomeka ngokuphelele.

Ngaphandle kohlangothi oluseNingizimu, nazo zehla zize zithathe ukunwebeka okukhulu, okuhlanganisa nendawo enkulu eSifundazweni Sase-Wyoming. Kakade eSifundazweni SaseColorado, ihlangabezana nokuncane okuphawulekayo, kangangokuthi ibekwe ezindaweni ezimbalwa zezintaba ezincane ezinobukhulu obuncane.

Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi izintaba ze-Rocky zakha ukuhlukaniswa okufanelekile kwamanzi omfula athela e-Arctic, i-Atlantic ne-Pacific Oceans. Iphinde ibe nokuthi ezindaweni eziningi, ukomisa kumelela enye yezimpawu zayo ezidume kabi, eziningi zazo ezihlobanisa leli qiniso nebanga lakho ukusuka olwandle.

Okuthi, futhi, ukhahlamba lwezintaba luvimbe umgoqo othile wezulu obangela ukuba umswakama wemimoya evela eNtshonalanga ume, ukhubazeke noma unganyakazi. Uhlaza lwawo lubonakala ngokuntuleka kakhulu, lusenyakatho kuphela yentaba, lapho lumbozwe khona ihlathi le-coniferous elibanzi neligxile kakhulu futhi eliwugqinsi.

Izitshalo Nezilwane Zase-Rocky Mountains

Okunye okukhangayo okunamandla kwe-Rocky Mountains ukuthi kuningi kakhulu uma kukhulunywa ngezilwane zasendle. Ngaleyo ndlela kwakhiwa ama-biomes ahlukahlukene, okuyizici zemvelo ezihlanganisa indawo ebanzi enesimo sezulu esifanayo.

Kanye nama-ecosystem ahlukahlukene, okuyisakhiwo esakhiwe yizidalwa eziphilayo ezitholakala endaweni, kanye nemvelo evamile, eyazo noma ethile. Ukukhumbula ukuthi yonke le nkimbinkimbi ibe yimpendulo ekugugulekeni kwentaba okungenakubalwa, kanye nezinguzunga zeqhwa eziye zenzeka phakathi neminyaka eyizigidi ezingu-60 edlule.

Ngalo mqondo, umuntu unayo ke, ububanzi noma ububanzi Izici zezinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo obusayo, okuyinto ebongeka ngokuphelele. Ukuba yinto evamile izindawo zezwe:

  • I-Tundra
  • Ethafa
  • IBosque
  • UMeadow
  • Amaxhaphozi, phakathi kokunye.

Izimila Zamahlathi Ezintabeni ZaseRocky

Flora

Ngokuphathelene ne-flora, ezinhlobonhlobo zayo kuvumela ukubona ngeso lengqondo izinhlobonhlobo zezitshalo ezinikezwe izimbali, amakhambi, ama-conifers, utshani, ama-mosses, phakathi kwabanye. Ukuba nezitshalo ezivelele ze:

  • I-Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa)
  • I-Douglas fir (iPseudotsuga menziesii)
  • I-Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii)
  • I-Oak (Genus Quercus)
  • I-Alpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa)
  • Upopular (Populus sect. Aigeiros), phakathi kwabanye.

lapho, ohlangothini olungasempumalanga ye Izintaba Ezinamadwala, ikakhulukazi endaweni esenyakatho, utshani bayo bunikezwa ukuba khona kwendawo enomswakama enotshani obude. Ngenkathi isendaweni eseningizimu, izimila zayo ziyafana, endaweni enomswakama, kodwa umehluko ukuthi izibonakalisa ngamakhambi amancane noma ukukhula.

Khona-ke yonke into ishintsha ngaphezu komugqa wesihlahla, ngoba okuwukuphela kwento ezophawuleka kakhulu amakhambi ambalwa kanye nezitshalo ezimbalwa ze-cushion, ngakho-ke ukuntuleka kwezinhlobonhlobo kubonakala, okuyinto eyenza kube nokwenzeka ukuba nezindawo ezihlukahlukene ezinjalo, njengalezo ezishiwo ngenhla. , ezibhekene, entabeni eyodwa.

I-Rocky Mountain Black Bear

Fauna

Izilwane eziyingxenye ye Izintaba Ezinamadwala iyahlukahluka phakathi kokunwetshwa kwayo, ibonisa izinyoni ezimele nezilwane ezincelisayo. Phakathi kwalezo ezigqamayo, ibhere elimnyama ( Ursus americanus ), imbuzi emhlophe ( Oreamnos americanus ), imvu enkulukazi ( Ovis canadensis ). I-wolverine (Gulo gulo), i-Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis), inyamazane enomsila omhlophe (Odocoileus virginianus), i-trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator). Kanye nenyamazane yaseCanada (Cervus canadensis), inyamazane yomnyuzi (Odocoileus hemionus), i-coyote (Canis latrans), ibhere elinsundu (Ursus arctos), i-white-tailed grouse (Lagopus leucura), phakathi kwabanye.

Amarockies aseCanada

I-Canadian Rocky Mountains itholakala phakathi kwamaPaki Kazwelonke amane:

  • I-Banff
  • Jasper
  • Kootenay
  • Yo Ho

Futhi, ngaphakathi kweziFundazwe ezintathu:

  • I-Mount Assiniboine
  • I-Hamber
  • Khwela robson

Le Canadian Rocky Mountain Range ihlukaniswe phakathi kwezifundazwe zase-Alberta kanye neBritish Columbia. Kula mapaki amane, akhanga kakhulu nalawo ahamba phambili athola izivakashi eziningi yiBanff neJasper.

Mayelana nobuhle kanye nemininingwane ekhonjiswa lezi, zihlukaniswa “njengendawo engcwele yemvelo” yangempela. Lapho ukuhlukahluka kwezitshalo kuzokwaziswa ngokugcwele, ngokuba khona kwehlathi, amachibi, iziqongo, izinguzunga zeqhwa, imifula, phakathi kwabanye. Izinhlobonhlobo zezilwane ezivelele kubo bonke ububanzi bazo.

Ibonakala ngokuthi yamenyezelwa njengeNdawo Yamagugu Omhlaba yi-UNESCO ngo-1984.

I-Banff National Park iyindawo eqhelile kakhulu eCanada, lapho ibibhekwa njengalokhu kusukela ngo-1885. Endaweni yayo yonke engamakhilomitha-skwele angu-6.642, kunethuba elibanzi lezindawo ezingenakulibaleka kanye nokuhlangenwe nakho. Lapho ukuvakasha okungeke kwagwemeka yilokhu:

  • I-Bow Lake ne-Peyto Lake.
  • Ichibi Louise, iLake Agnes kanye neLake Moraine.
  • I-Bow Valley Parkway ne-Johnston Canyon.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kucatshangelwa eyesibili evakashelwe kakhulu, i-Jasper National Park, etholakala ohlangothini olusenyakatho lweCanada Rockies. Ibhalwe ngalokhu kukhulunywa kusukela ngo-1930 futhi inendawo ephelele ehlanganisa kabanzi amakhilomitha-skwele ayi-10.878. Kuleli paki, ukuvakasha okunconyiwe okungeke kulibaleke ngenxa yobuhle bayo obukhulu, kwenziwa yilokhu:

  • I-Icefield Centre kanye ne-Athabasca Glacier.
  • I-Sunwapta Falls kanye ne-Athabasca Falls.
  • I-Medicine Lake kanye ne-Maligne Lake.

Izilwane zasendle zase-Canadian Rockies

I-Canadian Rocky Mountains ibonakala ngokuba yinkazimulo yasemhlabeni echichimayo, futhi ihlinzeka ngezilwane ezihluke kakhulu, ezilawulwa kulo lonke leli paki ngaphandle kokuvinjelwa. Lapho ukuvikelwa okwenziwa ngabasebenzi besiqiwu kuqinile futhi ngokwendawo ebafanele. Lapho izivakashi kuyizo ezijabulelayo, okwenza le ndawo ibe yizindawo ezikhangayo ezihamba phambili.

Kufanele kuqashelwe ukuthi ngokwendawo yokuhlala, lena yizilwane ezizobonakala, ngayinye ihola endaweni yaso. Okumele kakhulu futhi okumangalisayo kuzo zonke ibhere elicwebezelayo, elinesisindo esingaphezu kwamakhilogremu angu-500. Lokhu kulandelwa ibhere elimnyama, okuthi nakuba lingaxhamazeli futhi linobudlova njenge-grizzly, kodwa lisewusongo okufanele libhekwe.

Ngaphandle kukhona abanye ukuthi phakathi ezihlukahlukene Flora kungenzeka ukuthola, njengoba zinjalo: ama-cougar, izinyamazane, izimvu ezinophondo olukhulu, ama-bald eagles. Kanye nama-moose, wapití, izingwejeje, izimbuzi zasezintabeni ezimhlophe, izimpisi, ama-beaver, ama-lynx, phakathi kwabanye. Lapho ezinye ziyoba lula ukuzibona, kuyilapho ezinye zivamile ukubonwa, kokubili kubaphathi bepaki nezivakashi.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
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  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.