He aha ka palapala honua

palapala kino o ka peninsula

ʻO nā huaʻōlelo "palapala kino" mai ka huaʻōlelo Latin mappa a e kuhikuhi i a hōʻike ʻana i kahi ʻāina. Hiki ke ʻike ʻia ka palapala ʻāina kino ma ka pepa ma ke ʻano o ka ʻāpana ʻāpana a i ʻole ke ʻano pōʻai e like me ka honua. Eia kekahi, pili ka huaʻōlelo kino i kekahi mea e pili ana i ke kino a i ʻole ke ʻano.

Inā makemake ʻoe e ʻike hou aku e pili ana i nā palapala ʻāina kino, eia mākou e haʻi aku iā ʻoe.

He aha nā ʻano o ka palapala honua?

He aha ka palapala honua?

Kōkua nā palapala ʻāina kino iā ʻoe e noiʻi i kahi hou ma o ka hāʻawi ʻana iā ʻoe i ke alakaʻi ʻana ma ka ʻāina i ʻike ʻole ʻia. Eia kekahi hāʻawi i ka ʻike e pili ana i nā kuahiwi, nā muliwai a me nā pāpū o kahi wahi.

Hoʻohana ka palapala ʻāina i nā kala a me nā laina i hoʻonui ʻia i ka nui e hōʻike i nā ʻokoʻa o ke kiʻekiʻe, ka moana, a me nā ʻāina.. Hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia e hoʻoholo i ka lōʻihi o ka mamao ma waena o nā kiko. ʻO nā kikoʻī kaulana i nalowale mai kēia palapala ʻāina, ʻo ia nā kūlanakauhale, nā alanui, nā wahi e kipa aku ai, a me nā ʻike pili ʻāina ʻole. Akā, e pili ana kēia palapala 'āina i ke kālaihonua a me ke kālaihonua o ka ʻāina.

he palapala honua hoʻohui i nā ʻano kino o kahi wahi me ka hui politika o kona mau ʻāina. He ʻokoʻa ia mai kahi palapala kālaiʻāina e hōʻike ana i nā ʻāina aupuni o nā lāhui like ʻole ma kahi ʻāina a ʻāina paha. Aia kekahi palapala 'āina pili kino e hōʻike ana i nā ʻano ʻelua i kahi kiʻi hoʻokahi. Pono kēia mau palapala ʻāina piha no ke aʻo ʻana i nā kumuhana like ʻole.

He aha nā mea hana i ka palapala honua?

Nā mea hana i ka palapala honua

Aia kekahi palapala 'āina i kekahi mau mea. Aia kēia mau mea ka hakahaka a me ka wahi, ʻelua-dimensionality, verticality, abstraction and idealization, scale and references. He ʻokoʻa kēlā me kēia palapala ʻāina ma muli o ka helu o nā mea i komo i loko. ʻO kekahi o nā ʻokoʻa koʻikoʻi ma waena o nā palapala ʻāina ma muli o ko lākou ʻano ʻekolu. Hoʻokomo ʻia kēia mea i ka wā e piʻi ai nā hui i kahi pae kiʻekiʻe. Ua hoʻololi ʻia nā palapala ʻāina i ka wā i hoʻohui ʻia ai ka ʻekolu-dimensionality i nā moʻomeheu no ka mea e hōʻike ana lākou i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo mai ka hiʻohiʻona kūpaʻa, me he mea lā e nānā mau ʻia ka ʻāina mai luna mai. Eia kekahi, hoʻohana kēia mau palapala ʻāina i nā hōʻailona kūpono a me ka abstract e hōʻike i nā hiʻohiʻona o ka ʻāina ma ke ʻano maʻamau. Hoʻohana pū lākou i kahi pālākiō hoʻemi.

Hiki i nā palapala ʻāina kino ke hōʻike i kahi wahi liʻiliʻi e like me ke kaona a i ʻole kahi ʻāpana nui e like me ka ʻāina. Hiki iā lākou ke loaʻa nā pae kikoʻī like ʻole.

Pono ka hoʻomākaukau ʻana i nā palapala ʻāina. I kēia manawa, hana ʻia ka hapa nui o nā palapala ʻāina me nā kiʻi lewa a me nā kiʻi ukali., kāhea ʻia 'ōpona. Hāʻawi kēia i ka pololei o kāu hana. Ke hoʻomaikaʻi nei nā ʻenehana, maʻalahi ka hana ʻana i nā palapala ʻāina.

Pehea ka wehewehe ʻana i ka palapala ʻāina kino?

ʻO Orthophoto, nā palapala honua hou

Pono e wehewehe pololei i nā kala he alakaʻi e hiki ke kōkua iā ʻoe e hoʻomaopopo i ka palapala ʻāina, no laila ua hana ʻia kahi moʻolelo. ʻO ka moʻolelo he pahu i loaʻa ka ʻike e pili ana i ke ʻano o kēlā me kēia kala. A laila e hāʻawi mākou iā ʻoe i kahi kuhikuhi liʻiliʻi e pili ana i nā kala i hoʻohana ʻia i nā palapala ʻāina kino:

  • ʻO nā lau ʻeleʻele hōʻike kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻeoiai na kala maopopo loa hōʻike kiʻekiʻe haʻahaʻa. ʻO kēia ke kumu o ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i ka palapala ʻāina maʻamau e pono ai ka ʻike ʻana i ka moʻokalaleo o nā kala.
  • ʻO nā lau ʻōmaʻomaʻo, melemele a me ka brown pani ka hoomaha. Hōʻike kēia mau kala i ke kahakai, nā wahi ʻeleʻele i waenakonu, a me nā wahi melemele ma waena.
  • ʻO nā lau azules i manaoia no kino wai. ʻO ka hohonu o ke kino wai e hōʻike ʻia ana e nā uliuli ʻeleʻele loa, e like me ke ʻano o nā loko a me nā moana, no nā lagoon, marshes a me nā muliwai me ka liʻiliʻi o ke kahe ʻana, hoʻohana ʻia kahi uliuli māmā. ʻO ka ʻoi aku ka maopopo o ke kiʻi ʻo ia hoʻi nā ʻāpana hohonu o ke kiʻi.

No ke aha i hoʻohana ʻia ai nā kala?

Hana ʻia nā palapala ʻāina kino e hoʻohālikelike a mahalo i nā waiwai metric kōkua i nā mea hoʻohana e helu maʻalahi i nā ʻili a me nā mamao. He kanaka paʻi kiʻi kiʻi, he loea i ka hoʻopaʻi ʻana i ka palapala kiʻi, nona ke kuleana no ka hana ʻana i ka palapala ʻāina. I loko o kēia mau palapala 'āina i hoʻopaʻa ʻia nā inoa o nā kūlanakauhale koʻikoʻi, akā ʻaʻole i wehewehe maopopo ʻia ko lākou mau palena (no kēia, pono e nānā i nā palapala kālai'āina).

No ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana i nā hiʻohiʻona o ka honua, hoʻohana ʻia nā kala ma ka palapala honua., ʻo ka mea maopopo loa ka mea ʻoi aku ka palahalaha a i ʻole ka liʻiliʻi o ka hohonu, a ʻo ke kala kiʻekiʻe a hohonu hoʻi he kala ʻoi aku ka ikaika. No laila, uliuli nā muliwai a me nā loko, a ʻo ka hohonu o ko lākou wai, ʻoi aku ka ʻeleʻele o nā kaha e hōʻike ana iā ia. I ka hihia o ka hoʻomaha o nā mauna a me nā puʻu, ua hōʻike ʻia me ka ʻulaʻula a me ka ʻulaʻula, a no nā pāpū, ʻōmaʻomaʻo.

Pehea ka loli ʻana o nā palapala ʻāina i ka mōʻaukala? Nā palapala 'āina kino mua

Ua hana ʻia ka palapala ʻāina i hana ʻia e ke kanaka Helene ʻo Anaximander i ke kenekulia XNUMX BC. C., i hōʻike ʻia i kahi ʻāina i hoʻopuni ʻia e ka nui moana. Ma hope mai ua hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻia ke kaha kiʻi a ua lilo ia ʻano nui i ke Kai Mediterranean, ke Kai ʻEleʻele a me nā muliwai Nile. Ua hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ʻo ʻEulopa, Libya a me ʻAsia e ka muliwai Phasis.

I ka makahiki 1570 CE, ua paʻi ʻia ka palapala honua piha mua loa. Eia naʻe, ʻoi aku ka ʻike o ka makemakika a me ka physics i nā kenekulia XNUMX a hiki i ka XNUMX hiki ke loaʻa nā ana pololei. ʻO kēia nā latitu, longitudes, meridian, a me nā palapala ʻāina ma ke ʻano laulā.

Ua hoʻopau ʻia nā palapala ʻāina kino e ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā sextants a me nā telescopes i ke kenekulia XNUMX.

Nā palapala ʻāina i loaʻa nā kiʻi a me nā hoʻonohonoho GPS i lawe ʻia mai ka hāʻawi lewa he hiʻohiʻona pololei loa o ka topography o ka Honua. Hoʻokumu ʻia lākou mai nā papahana georeference, e like me QGIS, ARCGIS, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe. Hāʻawi kēia mau palapala ʻāina i hoʻonui mau ʻia i nā kiʻi paʻi kiʻi e hana i nā palapala e hoʻopaʻa i kēlā me kēia hoʻololi maʻalahi o ka honua.

ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, ʻaʻole wale ma ka palapala kiʻi a me ka palapala honua kahi i hoʻohana ʻia ai ka huaʻōlelo palapala honua. Akā, ma ka Biology, kūikawā ma ka lālā o nā huʻakaʻehā Hoʻohana ʻia ka huaʻōlelo ʻāina kino e pili ana nā genes a me nā hōʻailona genetic i hana i nā chromosomes. Manaʻolana mākou ua pono kēia ʻike iā ʻoe i ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i nā palapala ʻāina kino.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

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