Waqoqin Rarraba: Asalinsa, Ma’anarsa, Halaye da ƙari

A cikin wallafe-wallafen akwai abin da ake kira waqoqin karin magana cewa wani nau'i ne wanda ya ƙunshi ɓangaren rubutun da aka haɗa da waƙa. Ga masoya irin wannan rubutun na aljana, muna gayyatar ku da ku ji daɗin wannan labarin.

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Waqoqin Rarraba: Gabatarwa

Wa}o}in wa}o}i, salon rubutu ne da aka ha]a, wanda ba labari ba ne, ko wa}o}i a yadda aka saba, wanda ke rikitar da bayaninsa. Duk da haka, yana da la'akari, wanda ya kafa haɗin kai.

Waƙar baƙar magana a cikin Homeric da nau'ikan ra'ayoyi na zamani. Wannan furci shine tabbatar da sigar adabi a matsayin jerin ƙa'idodi waɗanda ke tafiyar da jujjuyar kalmomi, cikin iyawa da ƙimar da ta dace, dangane da wasu ra'ayoyi na fa'ida mai kama da aiki da ingantacciyar rarrabuwa.

Wataƙila waƙar baƙar magana ita ce kawai nau'i na sabon nau'in adabi na gaba ɗaya da aka samar a wannan zamani, wanda ke nufin, bayan ko bayan wayewar zamani.

Akwai wata ma’ana mai ban sha’awa da ban sha’awa a tsakanin waqoqin karance-karance, guntuwa da muqala ta hanyar nagarta, na farko, shi ne a san shi, na dama ta tarihi da kuma daga baya sha’awar adabi ta wani fanni. A matsayi na biyu, ta hanyar sharuddan sabon abu kamar laconicism wanda ta wata hanya ya dame su duka. Muna gayyatar ku don ci gaba da jin daɗin karatun ta hanyar karanta wani labarin mai ban sha'awa mai suna Nazarin Halitta

Ya kamata a nanata cewa ma'anar tawaye ta zamani da kyau da nau'ikan adabi suka nuna, damuwa gaba ɗaya kuma ta bambanta waɗannan nau'ikan nau'ikan guda uku da ra'ayoyin da aka nuna, musamman ma waƙa da guntuwar fasaha ta fasaha. Waƙar baƙar magana tana da daraja a matsayin buri ga taƙaitaccen bayani.

Akwai tushen ruɗani na farko waɗanda suka bayyana kamar haka:

  • Da alama na nau'in nau'in tare da hanyar Stanza kyauta
  • Nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in wakoki na da.
  • Nau'in nau'in nau'in tare da fassarar ko fassarar ayyukan adabi waɗanda ke magana akan al'adun gargajiya ko na da, wanda a gaban mai karatu ya shiga tsakani da ƙarfin tunawa da launuka masu launi na kalmomin waƙar.
  • Nau'in nau'in nau'in tare da komawa ga muhawarar rayuwar yau da kullum a cikin almara zuwa ƙamus.

Tushen

Waƙar baƙar magana ta taso a cikin larura mara kyau. Ƙirar almara, ta ci gaba da kasancewa a cikin ilimantarwa, ƙarin kashi na adabi ko hatimin salon sa, ba tare da ya ƙunshi waƙa ba. Wataƙila kuna sha'awar karatu Ina raira waƙa ga Bolivar

Romanticism shayari da kuma Ossian sake zagayowar

A cikin 1800s, a cikin cikakken romanticism, ci gaba da fifiko na wallafe-wallafen wanda ya dace da kyawawan dabi'u na cikakke, kayan ado na maɗaukaki daga abubuwa masu haske, da kuma cewa kaddarorinsa suna shiga tsakani a yalwace, na har abada ko marar iyaka. .

Wannan salon ya sake bayyana don farfado da sha'awar waƙar, kamar yadda ya fi kama da waɗannan abubuwa, a bayyane yake adawa da karni na ilimin da ya cancanta a matsayin direba na gaskiya. Sai dai kuma sigar waqoqin sai ta samu ‘yanci, ayar ta ragu zuwa ga ka’idojin bugu da kari kuma ta ci karo da wasu sha’awa.

François-René, Viscount Chateaubriand, jami'in diflomasiyya na Faransa, ɗan siyasa kuma marubuci, wanda ya kafa soyayya a cikin adabin Faransanci, ya zaɓi ɗaukar almara a cikin waƙar waƙa. Shahidai na 1809, kafin yin kasada a cikin nau'i mai tsanani na waƙa.

Fassarar da ake zargin James Macpherson, wanda aka sani da heteronym dinsa, wanda ke nufin sunan karya da marubuci ya karbe, a cikin Celtic Bard Ossián, mawakin Scotland na Pre-romanticism da almara na Fingal, wanda aka gudanar a cikin shekara ta 1761 kuma ya tattara shekara guda sannan tare da hanyar haɗin sabbin ayoyi a cikin Ayyukan Ossian, zai zama tabbatacce don shigar da fasahar fasaha ta farko game da wannan nau'in.

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Yana nufin wani aikin adabi, wanda ya shahara sosai a ko'ina cikin yammacin duniya na zamanin, wanda Goethe a Werther zai fassara sassansa daga harshen Jamusanci, kasancewar aikin Napoleon ko Walter Scott ya fi so.

Buɗe hangen nesa na waƙar ba ta jinkirta aiwatar da aikin ba, duk da haka, yana ci gaba da tabbatar da fassarar waqoqin waje ko na gargajiya, kamar yadda ya faru da waƙoƙin Malagasy na Évariste Parny (Chansons Madécasses of the year 1787, ko La Guzla de Mérimée). , daga shekara ta 1827 a cikin Faransanci.

Ci gaba, an ƙayyade nau'in nau'in kuma an samu: Maurice de Guérin tare da The Centaur, aikin da aka rubuta a 1837 sannan aka buga a 1840, da kuma La bacchante, wanda aka buga a 1862; sani a cikin shekara ta 1838 Xavier Forneret, ya buga wani tari da ake kira «Vapeurs, bã vers ko prose», wanda ya fassara «Vapores, bã aya ko lãbãri», kuma daga baya Jules Lefèvre-Deumier tare da aikinsa na mai tafiya «Livre du promeneur», shekarar 1854.

Aloysius Bertrand asalin

Louis Jacques Napoléon Bertrand, wanda aka fi sani da Aloysius Bertrand, mawaƙin Faransa ne na Romanticism, kuma tare da wannan gardamar jama'a a 1842, Gaspar de la noche.

Yana da game da lyrical ingancin rubuce-rubucen da kuma na ado sani cewa ayyukansa wakilta nuna ruɗi a cikin salon Rembrandt da Calot, na karshe wallafe-wallafen Aloysius Bertrand, wanda ya mutu a shekara kafin a sake dawowa da tarin fuka a cibiyar asibiti. a lokacin da kawai ƙasƙantattu suka mutu a asibiti, kuma sun cancanci rubutun kafuwar waƙar magana a Faransa.

Mawaƙin Aloysius Bertrand ya yi amfani da, yana amfani da harafin Gothic evocation don sha'awar abubuwan mafarki ko mafarki a cikin magana, yana ƙarfafa motsin rai na labarin. An kwatanta wannan marubuci a matsayin wanda ya kafa irin sahihancin, duk da haka, wasu masana na ƙarni na sha tara sun ba da bambanci ga mawallafin mawaƙin Faransa Maurice de Guérin.

Baudelaire da tabbatar da jinsi

Charles Pierre Baudelaire, mawaƙi, mawallafi, alƙali na fasaha da fassarar asalin Faransanci, da zarar ya yi ƙarya, shi ne wanda ya sake bayyana aikin Bertrand, wani hali wanda ya motsa shi don sake rubutawa na "Little Poems in Prose", sanannen ga da subtitle na "Spleen a Paris", sunan da sabon nau'in ne crystallized.

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A cikin shekara ta 1862, ya aika da wasiƙa zuwa ga mawallafinsa Arsène Houssaye, wanda kuma ke aiki a matsayin gabatarwa ga wallafe-wallafen bayan mutuwarsa a 1869, mawaƙin Baudelaire, ya fallasa yadda rubutun ya fi dacewa lokacin da aka sake haifar da jin dadi na zamani, musamman ma a cikin littafin. birni, wanda ya zama jigogi da aka fi so na waƙar baƙar magana:

 "Ina da ikirari da zan yi. Kuma shi ne lokacin da nake tafiya, a karo na ashirin a kalla, sanannen Gaspar de la noche na Aloysius Bertrand (littafin da kuka sani, ni da wasu abokai, ba za ku sami damar a kira ku da shahara ba?) wanda ya zo mini da ra'ayin in gwada wani abu mai kama da shi, yana amfani da bayanin rayuwar zamani, ko kuma, na rayuwar zamani mara kyau, tsarin da ya yi amfani da shi ga zanen rayuwar tsohuwar, don haka ban mamaki mai ban sha'awa.".

Bayan ya gabatar da aikinsa na "Ƙananan wakoki a cikin litattafai", taƙaitaccen bayani a cikin wannan nau'in ya karu. Stéphane Mallarmé, mawaƙin Faransanci kuma mai suka, yana goyan bayan haka da Haske, wanda tarin wakoki ne na ƙasidu da mawallafin Faransa Arthur Rimbaud ya rubuta; Édouard Joachim Corbière, wanda aka sani da Tristan Corbière; ko kuma Charles Cros masanin kimiyyar lissafin Faransa ne, mawaƙi kuma mai ƙirƙira. Zubar da labarin cewa wannan nau'in ya gina sarari don abubuwan da suka faru na waƙar kyauta.

Waƙar baƙar fata wani nau'i ne mai rikitarwa don iya tantancewa, wanda sau da yawa akan nuna shi a matsayin ɗan gajeren labari, duk da haka, ya bambanta a cikin aikin, ta hanyar maganganunsa mai ban sha'awa a cikin adadi da jituwa, canja wurin jin dadi, da bacewar wani abu. takamaiman hali.

Duk da haka, a kullum ana samun yuwuwar rubuce-rubucen da ba su da tabbas, suna faruwa, wanda ke tsammanin cewa "Tasha a Jahannama" na Rimbaud, ya fi zargi fiye da waka. A cikin wannan tsarin, a ƙarshen absolutism na biyu, Count of Lautréamont ya kawo haske a cikin 1869 "Cantos de Maldoror", inda aka haɗu da wakoki na gaskiya na gaskiya, wanda duk ya zama wani abu, ɓangarori na aikin, cikakkun bayanai da mafarkai da obfuscations. , ƙarfafa hali na Maldoror, jerin waƙoƙin waƙoƙi shida, aikin marubuci Isidore Ducasse.

Ayyukan

Yana da kyau a sanar da mai karatu abubuwan da ke tattare da wannan nau’in adabi, wato:

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  • Ana iya duba irin abubuwan da suka zo a cikin waqar, kamar: almara na fiili, halayen waqoqi, abu da hujja.
  • Ba ya ƙunshi abubuwa na yau da kullun, kari da copla.
  • Ya bambanta da waƙar, saboda an bayyana ta a cikin larduna kuma daga tatsuniya ko tatsuniya, domin manufarta ba musamman don danganta al'amura ba ne, amma don isar da ji, motsin rai da firgita.

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