Biography da littattafai na marubucin Tirso de Molina (pseudonym na Fray Gabriel Téllez)

Tirso de Molina Yana daya daga cikin manyan mawakan wasan kwaikwayo na zamanin da ake kira Golden Age, ya yi fice saboda kasancewarsa babban mawaki kuma mai ba da labari na zamanin Baroque, ya bi layin adabi na Lope de Vega, a cikin wannan labarin za ku sami ƙarin koyo. game da wannan marubuci.tirso-de-molina-1

Tirso de Molina

Har ila yau ana kiransa Fray Gabriel Téllez, ana la'akari da shi daya daga cikin manyan marubutan wasan kwaikwayo na harshen Sipaniya kuma ya kasance daya daga cikin muhimman wakilan abin da ake kira zamanin zinariya na Mutanen Espanya inda wasu manyan marubuta suka yi fice.

Shi mabiyi ne kuma dalibin Lope de Vega kuma ya kiyaye layin adabinsa sosai da na wancan babban marubuci, aikinsa ya kasance yana yin nazari mai zurfi a kan ilimin halin dan wasansa, musamman mata wadanda suka fi wakilcin aikinsa.

Bambance-bambancen da ke tattare da haɓaka wasan kwaikwayo da rubuce-rubucen barkwanci an yarda su ƙirƙira a cikin abubuwan da ke cikin su, manyan ayyuka waɗanda suka ɓata wa masu karatu da malamai da yawa mamaki a lokacin, ta yadda suka sami sakamako a cikin coci har kusan korarsu da gudun hijira, don yin la'akari da su. abun ciki bai dace ba..

Dangane da rayuwarsa ta sirri, ba a sami bayanai da yawa da suka shafi kuruciyarsa ba, amma dangane da kuruciyarsa, an san cewa ilimi da karatu sun mamaye shi tare da Lope de Vega, a lokacin da ya girma ya rike mukamai daban-daban kamar kwamanda a ciki. gidajen zuhudu da sauran mukamai, duk da haka rayuwarsa na cike da matsaloli da yawa.

A wani lokaci kuma ya kasance marubuci ne har ma an kore shi daga garinsu saboda saba wa ra'ayin sarakunan lokacin a cikin ayyukansa na barkwanci da ban dariya. Wannan hamshakin marubucin ya bar ayyuka sama da 300 a lokacin da injinan buga littattafai bai kai ga ci gabansa ba, wanda hakan ya sa muka ga cewa yana da nagartar rubutu ta musamman.

Tirso-de-Molina-2

Babban nau'insa shi ne wasan barkwanci, don haka a wasu lokuta yakan tabo jijiyoyi da motsin rai na wasu manyan mutane da malaman addini, duk da haka ya yi fice wajen gudanar da ayyuka na alfarma iri-iri da tarin litattafai na falsafa da suka shafi tiyoloji.

Tarihin Rayuwa

An haifi wannan babban hali a ranar 24 ga Maris, 1579 a birnin Madrid, an yi masa baftisma da suna Gabriel José López y Téllez, iyayensa Andrés López da Juana Téllez, bayi ne da suka yi wa Mista Pedro Masía de Tovar aiki, kuma daga baya. don Count Molina de Herrera.

Baftismarsa ta faru ne bisa wasu bita da aka yi a ranar 29 ga Maris, 1579 a Ikklesiya ta San Sebastián a Madrid, wasu masana tarihi sun ɗauka cewa ranar haihuwarsa a shekara ta 1584, amma har yanzu wannan bai fito fili ba, duk da haka ɗan tarihi Blanca de los Ríos ya ci gaba da cewa. ka'idar cewa takaddun baftisma da ya fara zuwa wancan kwanan wata ya shigo hannunsa.

A cewarta, wannan takardar shaidar baftisma ba ta da tushe, amma za ka iya lura da wasu bayanai dalla-dalla da suka tabbatar da ranar da aka bayyana, cocin da ’yan tarihi da yawa sun ci karo da wannan bayanin, domin Tirso de Molina ya yi baftisma a wannan ranar, ya kamata iyaye su samu. wani lokacin papal don shigar da tsarin rahama.

Shekarun farko

Tirso de Molina ya zauna tare da iyayensa da kuma nassoshi game da rashin rubuce-rubuce na yara, abin da aka sani da gaske shine aikinsa da ci gabansa a matsayin matashi, ya yi karatu tare da Lope de Vega, wanda ya kasance babban almajiri. Ya same shi a birnin Alcalá de Henares.tirso-de-molina-3

A wannan birni ya haɓaka layin wasan kwaikwayo mai suna lopista (Yanzu wanda ke kare ra'ayoyin wallafe-wallafen Lope de Vega), wanda Tirso de Molina ya ƙirƙira. A ƙarshen shekara ta 1600, lokacin da yake ɗan shekara 21 kawai, ya shiga cikin tsarin rahama kuma bayan ya gwada novitiate ya ɗauki halaye a ranar 1 ga Janairu, 1601 a gidan sufi na San Antolin a Guadalajara.

A shekara ta 1606 an naɗa shi firist a birnin Toledo. A lokacin Tirso de Molina ya karanci fasaha da tauhidi, sannan a shekara ta 1609 ya fara nuna alamun aikin rubuce-rubuce, daga baya ya koma Galicia, Salamanca da Lisbon, tafiyar da ta dauki kimanin shekaru 5.

Ayyukansa na farko da haɓakar adabi

A shekara ta 1611, Tirso de Molina ya riga ya rubuta litattafai masu yawa waɗanda, don samun damar samun kuɗi, ya sayar da su ga wasu masu karatu waɗanda ke neman hanyar samun ilimi da nishaɗi, a wannan shekara ta kasance. yi imani da cewa ya hada da mafi muhimmanci ayyukansa "The m a Palacio", "La villana de la Sagra", "El punishment del Penseque" da kuma trilogy na litattafan "Santa Julia".

An rubuta kowane ɗayan waɗannan ayyukan a tsakanin 1611 da 1615. Hakazalika, an haɓaka samar da litattafai da wasan kwaikwayo sosai, Tirso de Molina ya rubuta da sauri, basirarsa ta burge, har ma ya yi amfani da damar gabatar da jigogi na addini a cikin abubuwan da ke cikin labari.

A shekara ta 1615, a lokaci guda fara fitar da wasannin kwaikwayo da yawa, tare da abubuwan ban dariya da ban dariya, ya ba shi damar nemansa daga yawancin masu karatu waɗanda suka sami aikin nasa mai ban sha'awa. Tsakanin 1617 zuwa 1618 ya zauna a Santo Domingo, inda ya sami aiki a matsayin farfesa a Jami'ar birnin, wanda ya yi aiki na tsawon shekaru uku.

A lokacin. Ya sadu da mutane da yawa na addini da al'adu wadanda suka taimaka masa ya girma a matsayin marubucin wasan kwaikwayo kuma mai fasaha, kullum yana ɗaukar tsarin addini a gefensa wanda bai taba watsi da shi ba, ya sami ilimin da ya shafi yaki, wanda daga baya ya taimaka masa ya shigar da su a cikin abubuwan da ya rubuta.

A karshen shekara ta 1618, ya koma garinsu na Madrid, inda ya sadaukar da kansa sosai wajen rubuta ayyuka daban-daban da suka fito fili a tsakanin shekara ta 1623 zuwa 1633, lokacin da ya bayyana ayyukansa na barkwanci mai suna "Profanes comedies" da suka haddasa. sosai a cikin duniyar addini.

Shekarar hijira ta 1625

Ayyukan barkwanci na Tirso de Molina bai yi wa hukumomin Madrid dadi ba, don haka Count-Duke of Olivares ya kira taro da nufin gyara al'adu da wasu al'adu, bisa ga abin da ke zuwa a lura, bisa tsari. na ranar da ya hada da halin Tirso de Molina.

A cikin wannan taron, kididdigar ta bayyana cewa, badakalar da ta haifar da irin ayyukan barkwanci na wanda ake kira malamin Téllez na lalata da kuma haifar da munanan misalai da abubuwan karfafa gwiwa, wanda aka amince da su kuma saboda wannan lamari ne mai ban tsoro, don tuntuɓar su. Mai martaba, don haka Furofesa ya bayyana wa Nuncio kuma ya kore shi daga wannan wuri, ya aika da shi zuwa daya daga cikin mafi nisa na addininsa.

An cire Tirso de Molina daga laifin keta ka'idojin ladabi da ɗabi'a, wanda hakan ya tilasta masa kada ya sake yin wasan barkwanci ko kuma wani nau'in ayar da ba ta dace ba. Wancan ya ce, Tirso de Molina an kore shi daga Seville kuma yana zaune a cikin gidan zuhudu na La Merced, a halin yanzu ginin wani ɓangare ne na Museum of Fine Arts a Seville.tirso-de-molina-4

Wannan kuduri bai tsoratar da friar ba, ya ci gaba da aikinsa na adabi da rubuta ayyukansa, wato A wannan shekarar ya shiga gasar waka a kan bikin Canonization na San Isidro, ba a karɓi aikinsa ba kuma ba a taɓa sanin sakamakon ba.

A cikin shekara ta 1626, Kwamitin Gyarawa ya sake haduwa, wanda aka kafa wannan lokacin bisa ga bukatar Duke na Olivares, a can aka yanke shawarar sake azabtar da Tirso de Molina da ɗaurin kurkuku a gidan sufi na Cuenca, saboda rubuta abubuwan ban dariya da cike da ban dariya. na munanan abubuwan ƙarfafawa.

Ana sake neman korar kora daga korafe-korafe idan ya sake yin laifi. Wannan bai rage ayyukan wallafe-wallafen Tirso de Molina ba, kuma saurayin ya ci gaba da rubuce-rubuce, abin mamaki ba a sake ɗaukar matakan takunkumi ba kuma an bar abubuwan da Duke ke bayarwa a gefe.

Koma Madrid da mutuwa

A waccan shekarar Tirso de Molina ya koma Madrid aka nada shi kwamandan Trujillo, inda ya ci gaba da zama har zuwa 1929 lokacin da ya koma Seville kuma a shekara ta 1632 ya zauna a Catalonia, a lokacin Tirso de Molina ya ci gaba da rubuta ayyukan ban dariya da ban dariya, daga cikin mafi shahara. Mahimmanci sune "Tarihin Gabaɗaya na odar rahama", sadaukarwa ga membobin odarsa...

A cikin 1639 ya kasance a Catalonia, inda aka nada shi janar ma'ana da kuma tarihin tsarinsa kuma ya hada aikin "General History of the Order of Mercy", wanda ya haifar masa da wasu bambance-bambance da membobin Order, duk da haka Paparoma Urban VIII ya ba da kyautar. digiri na masters.

Sakamakon abin da ke cikin aikinsa ya kai shi ga rikici a cikin shekara ta 1640, tare da mambobin tsarin jinƙai, waɗanda suka sake neman gudun hijira zuwa yankin Cuenca, inda aka sake shi, daga baya ya koma birnin. na Soria inda ya kasance daga shekara ta 1645 a cikin convent of Our Lady of Mercy, a can aka nada shi kwamandan.

A shekara ta 1646 yana zama a birnin Almazán inda ya rasu a shekara ta 1648. Tirso de Molina ya bar babban gado na ilimi da kuma tasiri mai yawa akan al'adun duniya, musamman ma a lokacin da aka haifi asalin tatsuniyar Don Juan, mai dabara na Seville. da kuma baƙon dutse, waxanda suke da alamomin alamomi kuma suna aiki a cikin wallafe-wallafen Baroque.

Ayyuka masu mahimmanci

Bisa ga nassoshi na tarihi, ayyukan Tirso de Molina sun zarce 300, duk da haka akwai shaidar marubucin da kansa inda ya bayyana a cikin gabatarwar cewa ya yi nasarar rubuta ayyuka fiye da 400, wanda ya sa mu yi tunanin cewa shi mai girma ne. gwanin harshe kuma Ya kware wajen rubutu.

Ko da yake bayanan ba su yi daidai ba, wasu masana tarihi suna ganin cewa yin la'akari da adadin ayyukan da aka yi, wani karin gishiri ne, wanda ko shakka babu shi ne marubucin wasan kwaikwayo wanda ake kira Golden Age, amma fiye da 60 ayyukan na An adana nau'in wasan kwaikwayo, wasan ban dariya, da wasu tabbatattun nassoshi game da nau'ikan litattafai.

Abubuwan da ke cikin labari, musamman a cikin wasan kwaikwayo, suna ba da hanyar da wasan kwaikwayo ya ba da wani abu mai mahimmanci ga hankali da hankali, Tirso de Molina ya ɗauki gidan wasan kwaikwayon wasan kwaikwayo na wasan kwaikwayo da na wucin gadi, mai mahimmanci ga sassa na fasaha tun lokacin da, ta hanyar iri-iri ya ba ku damar. sami abun ciki na ku.

Binciken aikinsa ya sa ya sami damar samun abubuwan da suka ba shi damar taimaki wani ya bi hanya ta hanyar wasan kwaikwayo, ya yarda da shi a matsayin zane na fasaha, wanda yake ganin bai dace ba ko kama da kyawawan dabi'a. sosai daban-daban a aesthetics zuwa art.

A daya daga cikin ayyukansa, ya rubuta a cikin gabatarwar bangarori da suka shafi mahimmancin wasan kwaikwayo yana bayanin banbance-banbance tsakanin dabi'a da fasaha, inda yanayi tun lokacin da aka halicce shi ya zama wata halitta wadda ba za a iya gyara ta ba, ta yadda itatuwan 'ya'yan itace za su rika ba da 'ya'ya kullum, kuma kifi. kullum za a haife shi a cikin ruwa.

Don zane-zane, bambance-bambancen yana yiwuwa kuma ya ƙunshi motsi da motsi inda za'a iya canza dokokin kakanni don nunawa daga wasan kwaikwayo zuwa mai ban tsoro ko akasin haka, inda tsarin abun ciki ya ba da damar muhimmancin mutane da za a ba da su azaman wani abu. na ban dariya da ban dariya.

An gabatar da muhawarar da ke cikin aikin Tirso de Molina tare da wani mawuyacin hali, ko da a wasu lokuta suna da wuya a bi, akwai wani bayanin sirri game da makircinsa wanda ya sa mai karatu a cikin nau'i-nau'i na yau da kullum don amfani da tunaninsa.

Game da haruffa, ana bi da su ta hanyar da ta fi dacewa fiye da sauran masu wasan kwaikwayo na lokacin, halayen mata a cikin ayyukansu sun fi girma, akwai muhimmiyar rawa a cikin ayyukan jinsin mata, mun ga yadda Halin Marta de Marta a cikin wasan kwaikwayo na "La pious" tana cike da hanyoyin sadarwa na yanayi waɗanda ke nuna halinta a matsayin ruɗe.

Wasan barkwanci na Tirso de Molina ya tsaya tsayin daka don gabatar da yanayi na ban kunya a cikin jaruman inda koyaushe suka rabu da shi, a cikin nau'in wasan ban dariya na palatine an bayyana irin wannan hali. Muhimmancin aikinsa kuma yana cikin gaskiyar cewa bai taɓa manta da jigon addini ba, kuma muna godiya da abin da ake kira autos sacramentales a matsayin kyakkyawan ci gaba.

Waɗannan ayyuka tare da wani muhimmin cajin addini za su watsa cakuda wasan kwaikwayo da wasan ban dariya wanda wani lokaci ya haifar da wasu matsaloli, ku tuna cewa Ikklisiya ta kasance mai tsauri tare da ra'ayoyin ɗabi'a da ɗabi'a. Tirso de Molina ya kirkiro irin waɗannan ayyuka da yawa da suka taimaka wa mutane da yawa su san hakikanin addini.

Salon ayyukansa an yi masa alama ta hanyar kiyaye sifofin ra'ayi, wato, yana amfani da bayanin abubuwa don jayayya da wani yanayi. Ƙimar tunani na wasu haruffa, ko a cikin wasan kwaikwayo, wasan kwaikwayo ko wasan kwaikwayo, ya ba Tirso de Molina damar samun halin mutum a kowane ɗayan.

An yi la'akari da Tirso de Molina mafi yawan 'ya'ya da wadata a cikin mawallafin wasan kwaikwayo na gargajiya, wanda wasu mawallafa suka amince da shi kuma da kansa, an yi imanin cewa ya yi ƙoƙari ya kula da layin wallafe-wallafen Lope de Vega wanda ya haifar da motsin da ake kira Lopismo, wanda ke neman ingantawa. aikin da halayen labari na wannan babban marubuci.

Abubuwan da ke cikin ayyukan Tirso de Molina suna bayyana a cikin hanyar da ba za a iya fahimta ba, canjin hali na hali da kuma gyare-gyare na yau da kullum a cikin tufafi ya ba da damar ba da ma'auni na kulawa na musamman wanda ya ba da ayyukansa, wanda ya sa ya kafa shi. a kula da godiyar yanayi ta wata hanya dabam.

Suna da suna sun zarce iyakar muhallinsa, Lope de Vega da Calderón de la Barca ne kawai suka wuce, don wani lokaci an manta da ayyukansa, musamman a Spain, har zuwa karni na goma sha takwas an sake dawo da wasu ayyuka kuma an kawo su ga jama'a.

A ƙasa za mu ga jerin ayyukan Tirso de Molina inda aka rarraba su bisa ga salonsu kodayake wasu suna da nau'ikan harshe daban-daban kuma suna cikin wasan kwaikwayo da wasan kwaikwayo, wasu kuma na wasan kwaikwayo da wasan barkwanci, muna ƙoƙarin karkasa su bisa ga tsarin. tsarinsu na tsawon lokaci .

  • The Jewel of the Mountains, Santa Orosia (an yi imani ya zama ɗaya daga cikin ayyukan farko na Tirso a cikin salon wasan kwaikwayo na addini da falsafa)
  • 1607 Tafkunan San Vicente (Barkwanci na Addini da Falsafa)
  • 1611, The Shameful Man in the Palace (Comedy), The Melancholy (Drama), The Republic Upside Down (Historical Comedy), Galician Mari-Hernández (Comedy Religious and Philosophical)
  • 1612, Yadda ya kamata abokai su kasance, La villana de la Sagra (Wasan kwaikwayo), El Aquiles (wasan kwaikwayo na mythological) La peña de Francia (wasan kwaikwayo na addini da falsafa), Matar da ke mulkin gidan (a kan labarin Jezebel, Religious comedy and philosophical). ).
  • 1613 The nymph na sama (Religious da falsafa comedy na siyasa satire), The allahntaka kudan zuma (Auto Sacramental), Ba na hayan riba (Auto Sacramental), The uwar sama (Auto Sacramental, kuma dauke a comedy na tsarkaka)
  • 1614 Azabar penseque, Wanda ya rufe bayar (Comedy), Marta mai taƙawa (Drama), The lady daga itacen zaitun (Villain tarihi novelistic comedy), La Santa Juana (Religious da falsafa comedy, Dukansu ne mafi da kuma mafi). mafi ƙanƙanta ( wasan kwaikwayo na addini da falsafa), Mafi kyawun tsintsiya (wasan kwaikwayo na addini da falsafa, game da labarin Ruth)
  • 1615 Don Gil na kore tights, Love by ãyõyi (Drama) Ƙauna da kishi sa hankali (Historical Comedy), Masoyan Teruel (Historical Comedy), The hukunta ga m (Religious da falsafa Comedy), Rayuwa da mutuwa na Hirudus (Comedin Religious and Philosophical), The Similar Brothers (Auto Sacramental), The Labyrinth of Crete (Auto Sacramental)
  • 1620 Soyayyar likitanci (Wasan kwaikwayo), Kishin kanta (Wasan kwaikwayo), Mugunyar Vallecas (Drama) Mai yaudarar Seville (Wasan kwaikwayo na Addini da Falsafa), Labyrinth na Crete (Auto Sacramental)
  • 1621 Kishi da kishi ya warke (Wasan kwaikwayo,), Gano Vargas (Historical Comedy), The pretended Arcadia (Mythological Comedy) Mafi girma jin cizon yatsa (Addini da falsafa comedy), Tamar ta fansa (Addini da falsafa comedy), Los cigarrales de Toledo ( Larabci)
  • 1622 Antonia García (Wasan kwaikwayo na Tarihi) Prudence a cikin mata (wasan kwaikwayo na addini da falsafa), game da Sarauniya María de Molina
  • 1623 Ta hanyar Cellar da Lathe (Wasan kwaikwayo)
  • 1624 Balconies na Madrid (Wasan kwaikwayo) Wanda baya fadowa, baya tashi (Bakwai na Falsafa na Addini)
  • 1625 Ƙauna don dalilai na matsayi (Drama), Babu mafi muni kurma (Drama),
  • 1626 Babu kurame mafi muni (Comedy), Daga Toledo zuwa Madrid (Wasan kwaikwayo), La huerta de Juan Fernández (Wasan kwaikwayo). Los Pizarros trilogy (The Historical comedy)
  • 1630 Soyayya ta manyan fasaha (Comedy)
  • 1632 Hana da ɗanɗanon ku (Wasan kwaikwayo, Comedy)
  • 1635 Ni'ima Na Ci Gaba (Prose)
  • 1637 Gabaɗaya Tarihi na Order of Our Lady of Mercy (Prose)
  • 1638 The Quinas na Portugal (Historical Comedy)
  • 1640 Genealogy na Count of Sástago (Prose)
  • 1644 Tsantsar kyau (Wasan kwaikwayo).
  • Rayuwar Uwar Mai Tsarki Doña María de Cervellón, an gano ta kuma ta fito a cikin 1908.

Labarin Don Juan Tenorio

Haihuwar wannan hali ne dangana ga Tirso de Molina, a lokacin da a cikin aikinsa (wanda ake la'akari da mafi girma na marubuci) "El Burlador de Sevilla" ya bayyana a hali wanda ke kula da cin nasara da yawa mata, ba shi da wani girmamawa ga rayuwar wasu kuma ya ɗauka a kan kansa ya saba wa dokokin dabi'a na mutum.

Dangane da aikin, akwai nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan suna nuna kwanan wata da wurin da aka buga ta, amma tare da wucewar lokaci an yi bayani dalla-dalla dalla-dalla game da ainihin asalin, kwanan wata da wurin da aka haifi aikin.

A cewar wasu masana tarihi na Italiya, wannan aikin ya danganta tatsuniyar Don Juan zuwa wani tatsuniya da ta bayyana a Italiya a shekara ta 1620, a cikin wani labari mai suna "Baqon Dutse", inda aka bayyana kwatanci mai kama da na Tirso de Molina.

Harshen Jamus ya nuna cewa almara na Don Juan Tenorio wasan kwaikwayo ne da malaman fikihu na yankin Ingolstadt suka yi a cikin shekara ta 1615. Mutanen Espanya sun yi la'akari da cewa bayyanar Don Juan Tenorio wanda Tirso de Molina ke nufi ya dogara ne akan abubuwan tarihi masu dangantaka da su. almara.

An yi imanin cewa halin da Lope de Vega ya gabatar a cikin ayyukansa, kamar Count of Villamediana, an yi wahayi zuwa gare shi.Wata ka’idar ta nuna cewa abubuwan wasan kwaikwayo na "El Burlador de Sevilla" suna kunshe ne a cikin wani aiki na sacrament da aka yi a Spain a cikin karni na sha biyar da na sha shida, a cikin ƙungiyoyin al'adu da ake kira fulminated atheisms.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u3e-wV9ZK5w

A gefe guda, kasancewar halin Don Juan Tenorio ana danganta shi da wani nau'in tatsuniyoyi na zamani. Wasu masana tarihi na Spain sun tabbatar da cewa kafin Tirso de Molina akwai ra'ayoyin wata kotun Spain da ke dauke da wani abu da wasu ke ganin cewa marubucin wasan kwaikwayo da kansa ya yi amfani da shi don ƙirƙirar halinsa.

Buga na farko

An yi bugu na farko na aikin a shekara ta 1630 a birnin Barcelona, ​​​​Spain ta mawallafin Gerónimo Margarit, bugun a halin yanzu yana cikin Laburaren Ƙasa na Spain a Madrid. A gefe guda kuma, akwai wani aiki mai suna "Tan Largo me lo fiais", wanda ba shi da kwanan wata ko wurin bugawa kuma ana danganta shi da Calderón de la Barca.

Connoisseurs sun yi zargin cewa wannan aikin ya kasance kafin wasan kwaikwayo na Tirso de Molina, duk da haka ra'ayoyin sun saba da juna, tun da bayanin har ma ya bayyana wanda ya ce game da ranar aikin El Burlador de Sevilla kafin rubutun "Tan Largo ni ka amince da shi. ».

Rubutun guda ɗaya mai aminci ga bugu na farko ya ƙunshi wanda aka buga a Seville tsakanin 1627 zuwa 1629 na Manuel de Sande, kuma aikin "Tan Largo me lo fiais", ya bayyana kuma Simón Faxardo ya sake dubawa kuma ya buga tsakanin shekaru 1634 zuwa 1635. Dukansu suna cikin Laburaren Ƙasa na Spain.

ainihin marubucin

A cewar wasu bayanai, ayyukan biyu "El Burlador de Sevilla" da "Tan Largo me lo fiais" ayyuka ne na Tirso de Molina da kansa, duk da haka babu wani bayani da zai iya tabbatar da wannan shawara, ko da yake an buga su a cikin shekaru daban-daban, amma sun kasance a cikin shekaru daban-daban. suna cikin rayuwar marubucin, ban da aikin «so Largo me lo fiais», ba a danganta shi ga kowane marubuci ba har yanzu.

Halin

Don Juan Tenorio wani hali ne da ya bayyana a cikin wasan kwaikwayon lokacin da ya yaudari Duchess Isabela a birnin Naples, sannan ya gudu daga birninsa inda ya hadu da wata mace mai suna Tisbea, wani mai kamun kifi a sana'a, wanda shi ma ya zamba, Don Juan ya sake gudu. kuma ya isa Seville, inda ya fara wani soyayya tare da Doña Ana de Ulloa, wanda har ya kashe mahaifinta.

Don Juan ya gudu daga Seville saboda tsoron an gano shi kuma bayan wani lokaci ya dawo birnin inda ya shiga coci ya ga wani mutum-mutumi na kwamanda, wanda ke saman kabarinsa, Don Juan ya gayyace ta zuwa cin abincin dare kuma mutum-mutumi ya karbi. , Lokacin da suka isa wurin alƙawari, mutum-mutumi ya ɗauki Don Juan da hannu kuma ya kai shi gidan wuta.

Wannan shi ne ƙarin ko žasa taƙaitaccen bayanin ayyukan da ke cikin wasan kwaikwayon "El Burlador de Sevilla" wanda Don Juan Tenorio ya taka leda a ciki, daga cikin halayen halayen akwai kamar haka: Wani kyakkyawan saurayi, daga dangi mai kyau, yana amfani da shi. tasirinsa na iko ya ketare dukkan ka'idoji da dokoki na zamantakewa da ɗabi'a.

Shi mai wayo ne, tare da ƙarfin zuciya da girman kai, yana lalata mata don jin daɗi, a cikin aikin hali ya bayyana bisa ga bayanin Tirso de Molina wanda ke wakiltar bangarori da dama, na lalata, kuma wannan shine halin da ya ba da izinin haifar da wani abu. Tatsuniyoyi a cikin adabin Mutanen Espanya na Don Juan Tenorio.

The m yanayi, hali da kuma tsarin abun ciki a cikin abin da Tirso de Molina ya wakilci hali, ya sa da yawa shugabannin da gwamnonin Madrid ji ƙi, la'akari da shi a izgili da coci da kuma daular, duk da haka, ba kawai zarge-zarge da ake dangana ga aikin "Burlador de Sevilla", kuma godiya ga sauran ayyukan marubucin wasan kwaikwayo, an sanya takunkumi.

A cikin aikin akwai haruffa da yawa masu ban sha'awa da ban mamaki, duk da haka wanda ya wuce lokaci kuma an ɗauke shi azaman ma'ana shine Don Juan Tenorio, wanda har ma ya yi aiki azaman nuni ga sauran marubuta.

Waɗannan suna da ƙayyadaddun litattafai, labaru da labarun da suka danganci halayen Don Juan, halayen halayen Tirso de Molina wanda ya ba shi damar wuce iyakokin wallafe-wallafen dawwama.

Idan kuna son wannan labarin, muna gayyatar ku ku ziyarci tashar yanar gizon mu ta danna hanyoyin haɗin yanar gizon:

Biography na Jose Emilio Pacheco

Vicente Lenero

Giovanni Boccaccio


Kasance na farko don yin sharhi

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