Girman Duniya: Sama, Tsari da ƙari

Muna rayuwa ne a duniyar da suka ce ita ce kaɗai ke da yanayin zama da halittu. Daga sararin samaniya zaku iya gano sassan da ke tantance shi. Muna gayyatar ku don ƙarin koyo game da Girman Duniya.

girman duniya

Asalin sunan Duniya

Hukumar NASA ta National Aeronautics and Space Administration ta ce game da wannan Asalin da Juyin Halitta na Duniya:

“Duniya ita ce kawai duniyar da ba ta da sunanta daga tatsuniyar Helenanci/Romawa. Sunan ya samo asali daga Tsohon Turanci da Jamusanci.

An rubuta duniya a cikin Ingilishi kuma ya fito daga kalmar Jamusanci "erde", wanda ke nufin ƙasa. Wannan sunan yana magana akan abin da ke ƙarƙashin ƙafafu.

Wasu suna ganin idan saboda abin da yake a samanta ne, da a ce duniyar ta RUWAN, tunda fiye da kashi 75% na yankinta cike yake da ita.

Wannan wuri mai cike da ruwa da kasa ita ce duniyarmu; Duniya, wacce ke da sifofin da ke baiwa halittu gaba daya damar zama mazaunanta.

Duniya daga sararin samaniya

A baya, litattafan karatun firamare sun nuna a karon farko cewa hoton da ke dawwama a cikin tunanin dan Adam har abada, siffar duniya mai siffar zobe tare da sassa cike da ruwa, wasu da ƙasa da ciyayi.

Koyaya, lokacin da aka ga hotuna ko bidiyo na sigar sa daga sararin sama, duk abubuwan da ke cikinsa suna girma. Bayyanar yanayi, a matsayin wani yanki mai ɗaukar hoto wanda ke nuna wurare daban-daban na ƙasa da kuma tekuna da ke kewaye da shi.

A halin yanzu, tashar sararin samaniya ta kasa da kasa (ISS), ta NASA, wata cibiya ce da ke gudanar da bincike a sararin samaniyar duniya kuma ta kasance a waje da sararin samaniya na dindindin, inda ta ba da damar ganin kai tsaye ta wannan kyamarar tauraron dan adam yadda duniyarmu take.

Girman Duniya

An riga an gano cewa Duniya, ba cikakke ba ne, amma yanki ne wanda aka karkata da sanduna, a fasahance ake amfani da ma'anar spheroid. Domin kuwa nisan daga tsakiya zuwa ma’adanin da kuma daga tsakiya zuwa sanduna ba iri daya bane.

Akwai wasu bayanan da aka yi rikodin su ta matakan nesa kamar:

  • Faɗin Duniya: 510.072.000 km2
  • Tsawon teku: 3,6.108 km2
  • Yankin Nahiyar: 1,5.108 km2
  • Nisan Equatorial: 6.378,1 km
  • Matsakaicin iyaka: 6.356,8 km

Yana da "layi na hasashe", tare da meridians, wanda zai haɗu da "sankin arewa tare da sandar kudu". Duniya ta kasu kashi biyu manya-manyan hemispheres ta wani layi wanda shine equator.

girman duniya

Sanin yanayin ƙasa tare da geoid

Geodesy, wanda aka sani da daya daga cikin ilimin kimiyyar duniya na wasu shekaru, yana nazarin tsarin tsarin duniyar don haka yana wakiltarta a matsayin "spheroid tare da ƙasa marar daidaituwa kuma ya dan kadan a cikin sanduna", musamman da ake kira "ellipsoid". na juyin juya hali”

saman da tsarin duniya Ta hanyar sifofinsa na dabi'a da na wucin gadi, suna da niyyar wakiltar su ta hanyar wannan kimiyya, ta hanyar yin amfani da ƙididdiga kuma bisa ga ainihin bayanai, a cikin filin nauyi na duniya, yana iya ba da cikakkun bayanai game da tsarinta.

Don duk bayanan Duniya na sama, ana ɗaukar geoid a matsayin hanya mafi kusa don sanin saman duniya. Farawa daga matakin teku, samar da ƙididdiga masu kyau da mara kyau waɗanda ke ba da lissafin daidaitattun bayanai game da haɓakar duniya.

Abin mamaki, binciken da masana Geodesy suka yi ya nuna cewa ainihin siffar duniya kamar balloon da ba a kwance ba ne. Jujjuyawar da duniya ke yi game da axis na 360º, yana ba mu elliptical wanda za a iya amfani da shi azaman nuni don nunawa. menene siffar duniya.

Ellipsoid na hasashen juyin juya hali

Geodesy bisa ga RAE:

"Wani bangare na ilimin kasa wanda ta hanyar ilmin lissafi ke tantance adadi da girman duniya ko kuma wani bangare mai yawa nata, kuma yana magana ne akan gina taswirorin da suka dace."

Wannan reshe wanda ko da yaushe yayi nazari akan siffar da girman duniya, Shi ne tushen karatu kamar:

  • topography
  • Injiniya kowane iri
  • shirye-shiryen sararin samaniya
  • Asma'u
  • Geophysics

Shekaru da yawa, masu bincike na kowane zamani sun yi nazarin duniya a zurfi, wanda, bisa ga ka'idoji da ra'ayoyin da goyan bayan bayanan da aka kiyasta, ya haifar da yiwuwar wakilci na duniya tare da taswira da sassa.

Hasali ma, a wani lokaci an ce duniya tana da lebur kuma an ɗauki shekaru kafin a gane cewa tana da siffar zagaye ko mai siffar siffa. Binciken da aka yi a karshen karni na 22 ya nuna cewa, akwai gagarumin bambanci tsakanin sassan biyu na gatari biyu na terrestrial ellipsoid mai kimanin kilomita XNUMX. Bari mu ga yuwuwar yanayin da ba a saba da shi ba na Duniya, siffarsa zai zama spheroid kamar yadda aka nuna a kasa:

girman duniya

sararin duniya

Lokacin da a cikin Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar, ta kasance ta hanyar cikakkiyar siffar sphere, babu bambance-bambance a cikin sanduna da ƙasa a cikin equator. An zana kasashe, nahiyoyi, tekuna da teku a hankali. Farkon ganewarsa shine "terrestrial globe".

Lokacin da na'urar hangen nesa na kimiyya da nazarin tauraron dan adam suka bayyana, wanda ya nuna kumburi a cikin sanduna, a bayyane yake cewa duniya tana kwance a cikin yankin equatorial. Wannan ya nuna cewa a zahiri kasashen da suka ci gaba kamar Arewacin Amurka da Nahiyar Turai, yankinsu ya yi kadan kuma Kudancin Amurka da Nahiyar Afirka sun fi girma.


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