Biography and important works of the author César Vallejo

The biography and Works by Cesar Vallejo You will be able to know them through this article. Where you will find a complete summary of the life and most important of the work of this Peruvian poet, essayist, narrator, journalist and educator who bursts into the era of avant-garde.


Biography and works of César Vallejo

The writer Cesar Abraham Vallejo Mendoza was one of the greatest representatives worldwide of the modern poetic genre of the XNUMXth century. For his part in his native Peru, he is regarded as the greatest literary composer of all time. Literary critics such as the British poet and biographer Martin Roger Seymour Smith refer to Cesar Vallejo as:

"The greatest poet of the XNUMXth century in all languages"

-Martin Seymour-Smith-

The first two works of Cesar Vallejo were two books of poems called:

  • The black heralds, published in 1.918, with a language of modernist currents
  • And Trilce, published in 1.922, a work to which he imprints his very personal poetic touch and at the same time that the avant-garde literary movement breaks into the world.

After these two collections of poems, Vallejo through journalism writes other works of the narrative genre, essays and some stories, many of them avant-garde

The last stage of his life was spent in Paris, with some trips and short stays in Madrid, Moscow and other different cities in Europe where he stopped. In Europe she supported herself with her journalistic work, complemented by teaching and translating texts. Finally, Cesar Vallejo died on April 15, 1938 in the city of Paris at the age of 46.

Biography by Cesar Vallejo

The biography of this poet, baptized with the name of César Abraham Vallejo Mendoza, begins on March 16, 1892, the day he was born into a traditional family in Santiago de Chuco, Department of La Libertad, Peru. Vallejo is a child of mestizo descent of indigenous and Spanish race.

His parents were Francisco de Paula Vallejo Benítez and María de los Santos Mendoza Gurrionero, being the twelfth and last of the children that this couple had. His indigenous genes come from his grandmothers and the Spanish from his two Galician grandparents, both Catholic priests.


Because of his priestly grandparents, the parents of the boy Cesar Abraham wanted to consecrate him to the priesthood, which did not happen. Little Vallejo studied elementary school in Santiago de Chuco at School Center No. 271. Later he studied high school from 1905 to 1909 at the San Nicolás de Huamachuco National School.


He began his higher studies in 1910 at the Faculty of Letters of the National University of Trujillo, but that same year he returned to his town due to lack of financial resources. In 1911 he moved to Lima and enrolled in the Faculty of Medicine of San Fernando. However, for economic reasons, he abandons his studies again. He finally resumes the career of letters and graduates on September 22, 1915.

The Young Vallejo

In 1916 the young man, already a graduate in letters, Cesar Vallejo was part of the intellectual youth of the Trujillo bohemia. Between him and figures such as Antenor Orrego, Alcides Spelucín, José Eulogio Garrido, Juan Espejo Asturrizaga, Macedonio de la Torre and Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre formed what would be called the North Group. At this time he publishes his first poems in the local newspapers, his muse of inspiration being the young María Rosa Sandoval with whom he falls in love with him. Some of the poems inspired by this young woman can be found in the Los Heraldos Negros collection of poems.

Later in 1917 Vallejo falls madly in love with Zoila Rosa Cuadra, a love that lasts very little and when it breaks, it leaves the young man totally depressed and about to take his own life. To get him out of his great sadness, his friends encourage him to go to Lima to continue his studies for a doctorate in letters.

Your time in Lima

At the end of the year 1917, Vallejo arrived in the city of Lima where he interacted with important personalities such as: Manuel González Prada and Abraham Valdelomar. The magazine Suramérica publishes several of his poems and he signs up as a teacher at a school in Lima.

During his time in Lima, he falls in love again, this time with Otilia Villanueva, a love affair that makes him lose his job. Later he is a grammar teacher at the Colegio Nacional Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, in Lima.

The first of Cesar Vallejo's works

His first work, which he called Los Heraldos Negros, was published in 1917. A collection of poems with great lyrical content with airs of the modernist current, where Vallejo reveals themes related to human suffering. This collection of poems opens the doors for Vallejo to the literary world of Latin America. In 1918 he returns to his native town.

César Vallejo is Imprisoned

In his town César Vallejo is involved in an unfounded accusation of collaborating in a fire. For which he is imprisoned for 4 months in Trujillo. In prison he continues to write and even manages to win a literature contest.

Once released from prison, Vallejo returned to Lima, where he published his second work Trilce in 1922. Which is a collection of poems with a renewed and avant-garde poetry. A year later he publishes the set of stories entitled Escalas melografiadas.

Life and death 

Vallejo with his thoughts on Europe and tired of the insignificance of his homeland, embarks for the Old World. The poet arrives in Paris in 1923 where he works in Latin American newspapers and magazines, there he also meets his wife Georgette Philippart Travers. In Europe he continues with his literary work while traveling through several European cities such as Madrid, Moscow, some Italian, among others.

He was sick several times and was able to recover his health. But in 1938 he falls ill again due to sequelae of malaria suffered as a child and dies in Paris at 46 years of age. His remains are found in the Montparnasse Cemetery, Paris, France.

The works of Cesar Vallejo

Cesar Vallejo leaves a legacy of literary works that wander among poems, narratives, stories, essays, plays, among others. But the most relevant of this Peruvian avant-garde poet are summarized below:

  • The Black Heralds, 1919
  • threesome, 1922
  • Wild fable, 1923
  • Towards the Kingdom of the Sciris, 1944
  • Russia before the second five-year plan, 1931
  • Tungsten, 1931
  • Colacho brothers or presidents of America, 1934
  • The tired stone, 1937
  • Paco Yunque, Written in 1931 and published in 1951

If you are a lover of poetry, we invite you to read articles about these other important poets and their works:

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